West University Place decorative concrete contractors

How to Find a Good Patio Contractor

Have you decided you want a flagstone, limestone or concrete patio for your TEXAS home. Wondering how to get it done and who you should use? Well, I’m going to tell you how. I’m going to give you a step by step process stating the 3 red flags that signal a bad or uneducated [tag] contractor. These 3 things will ensure you get it done the right way, by the right concrete supply inc contractor in TEXAS .

Steps To Finding The Right Concrete Contractor in TEXAS

First step, first things first. Every Stone Installation Needs A Concrete Footing which might also be called a concrete foundation . This is not opinion but fact. If you want it done right and want it to withstand the test of time, this is the way it’s done, no exceptions. A red flag should go up when any contractor is offering bypassing a concrete foundation as a cost saving option. Unfortunately 85% of the concrete supply inc contractors out there will tell you they can lay the stone right on top of compacted granite or base material. This type of contractor is exactly who you want to avoid. While what they are recommending to you gives the appearance of a patio, it won’t withstand the climate, erosion and soil movement beneath the patio in TEXAS .

BEWARE OF CONCRETE CONTRACTOR SCAMS

concrete resurfacing contractors

You might get a few crackless years at best, until it begins to fall apart. This method is the most recommended scam or shortcut of trying to lower pricing and still get the job. Notice the price came down because the concrete footing was removed from the job cost. This option of ” no concrete necessary” is most often offered to those with strict financial limitations. The contractors offering this solution don’t care about your patio or home, they just want your money.With no concrete foundation you get a type of patio, but it’s really just a veneer laid on the ground.

How much concrete do i need?

A concrete patio or sidewalk slab or footing should be a minimum of 4 inches thick. This is sometimes reduced to around 3 1/2 inches due to preexisting structural limitations for concrete supply inc in TEXAS . If you encounter space limitations, you really do need a good masonry contractor to resolve the issues with other options. this leads us to our next step.

decorative concrete business

The 2nd step is hire a knowledgeable masonry contractor in TEXAS . Do a little research before you start getting pricing. Most good masonry contractors will be able to talk concrete chemistry and technology with you. Yes, I said technology. In the last 10 years there have been some really cool advances in concrete additives and mixes. These advances have provided solutions for the problems and limitations of old. A true patio or masonry professional will be able to talk shop with you, it’s his livelihood. A contractor who can’t do this or doesn’t seem comfortable is more than likely a novice at best. This should be the other red flag that goes up. Basically, Concrete slabs and mortar are like a cake mix. Correctly mixing the ingredients and correctly letting the slab or masonry product cure, are the factors that determine a good solid installation. Again, Talk with your contractor and Make sure he’s knowledgeable about the chemistry, additives and curing process of concrete & masonry. If he is this will ensure the likelihood of a great patio. 3rd step and last but definitely not least, Check references, check reviews and ask to see work they’ve done. Really check this stuff out and try to look at at least 1 job they have done. Ask point blank if the previous client is related to the contractor. Any resistance or confusion in this process would be red flag number

concrete firms

3.So, in order from 1 to 3. All masonry installations need a concrete footing. Make sure your patio contractor is knowledgeable about masonry chemistry, additives and enhancing solutions. Check references, reviews and stay away from the dirt cheap deals of a lifetime from any concrete contractor in TEXAS .If you get even 1 red flag, get another contractor. There are enough guys out there that do know what they’re doing.

Concrete pump

concrete firms

Concrete surfaces and structures don't last forever, so if you require a concrete cutter, we may think it is best to hire skilled and properly qualified operator to create cracks and to facilitate the demolition. Drilling down and cutting down are always followed with a huge mess and dust so it is always better to find local, professional concrete cutting contractor. They can do a much cleaner and more efficient job. On the face of it, you need to visualise someone with proper equipment and skills together with maximum resources. Hiring concrete cutters with a proven track record and plenty of experience is the first criteria when making such a huge decision.1. You need someone with Good ReputationThe cutting service provider must be capable to build a positive reputation. They must possess knowledge and experience, so you can have confidence even for the most difficult and delicate projects. There are always plenty of contractors to choosing from, but their reputation is the main consideration you need to go for. Furthermore the final price, arranged deadlines and personal skills, can be the deciding factors after the professional competence. Inspecting out the reputation of a local concrete cutter is quite easy, with a few different avenues to take. Visit their website - Choose a cutter who owns a quality website. You can see that this concrete cutting company is a part of Concrete Sawing and Drilling Association of Australia (CSDAA). There are many ways you can check the competence of the contractor - you can seek for recommendations. The provider you choose can give you documentation and recommendations from previous projects and the work they have done to someone else.2. You need a provider who is AffordableThere is a tendency to expect from local specialists - whether they are concrete cutters or other tradesperson - because of the local market conditions you can ask for a lower quote. However, local companies can give you a more rational quote than international or regional companies with bigger projects, which means they will ask for more resources for the same project. This doesn`t mean that local operators don`t have competence, skills or equipment; they are just more affordable to work with. 3. Equipment and Technology By definition, the local concrete provider you will choose must have the complete facilities to maintain every single project successfully. Of course, if the provided equipment is good enough, it can repair the damage effortlessly and the demand of labour is eased considerably.4. Accredited by Progressive AssociationChoose a local concrete company that is accredited as a member by a national or international association or federation. Somehow, you will have a further guarantee that the contractor adheres to the working standards, respecting all safety regulations during the cutting process.

Don't Hire a Concrete Contractor Before You Read This!

concrete contractors

Sturdy, durable and economical, concrete is one of the most frequently used construction materials in the United States. Called pourable stone, it was once used by the Egyptians to build structures that still stand more than 3,600 years later. The standard concrete used by most Minneapolis general contractors combines sand, gravel and water with Portland cement.

Different Concretes and Their Uses

Many different varieties of concrete exist and a Minneapolis construction company generally chooses a particular variety for its purposes based on its particular compressive strength, a quality expressed in terms of pounds per square inch (psi) and megapascals (MPa). Some of the different types of concrete are:

Regular Concrete - Standard, or regular concrete, comes in a variety of pre-mixed packages that vary in their water-absorption and setting qualities, depending on the specific aggregates used. For the most part, regular concrete mixes offer a compressive strength in the range of 1450 psi (10 MPa) to 5800 psi (40 MPa). As such, it is not recommended for heavy, load-bearing structures. Minneapolis general contractors commonly use regular concrete for basic installations in residential buildings, for lining curbs and for strengthening sidewalks and driveways.

Shotcrete - Also known as Gunite, shotcrete is generally used where formwork is unnecessary, such as when building against rock surfaces or vertical soil. It is also used for rock support, especially while tunneling. In some cases, additives such as fiber reinforcement and accelerators may be added to the mix.

Concrete, in its myriad of forms, has become an indispensable part of our everyday life. All forms of concrete have to undergo the correct hydrating and hardening process to optimize their unique physical and chemical properties. In particular, care should be taken to mix the cement blend thoroughly in order to produce uniform, high-quality concrete. The right Minneapolis general contractor will be able to use a variety of types and styles of concrete to make your construction project the best and most cost-efficient that it can be.

TEXAS

Copper Canyon concrete driveway construction

How to Find a Good Patio Contractor

Have you decided you want a flagstone, limestone or concrete patio for your TEXAS home. Wondering how to get it done and who you should use? Well, I’m going to tell you how. I’m going to give you a step by step process stating the 3 red flags that signal a bad or uneducated [tag] contractor. These 3 things will ensure you get it done the right way, by the right biggest concrete companies contractor in TEXAS .

Steps To Finding The Right Concrete Contractor in TEXAS

First step, first things first. Every Stone Installation Needs A Concrete Footing which might also be called a concrete foundation . This is not opinion but fact. If you want it done right and want it to withstand the test of time, this is the way it’s done, no exceptions. A red flag should go up when any contractor is offering bypassing a concrete foundation as a cost saving option. Unfortunately 85% of the biggest concrete companies contractors out there will tell you they can lay the stone right on top of compacted granite or base material. This type of contractor is exactly who you want to avoid. While what they are recommending to you gives the appearance of a patio, it won’t withstand the climate, erosion and soil movement beneath the patio in TEXAS .

BEWARE OF CONCRETE CONTRACTOR SCAMS

ready mix cement company

You might get a few crackless years at best, until it begins to fall apart. This method is the most recommended scam or shortcut of trying to lower pricing and still get the job. Notice the price came down because the concrete footing was removed from the job cost. This option of ” no concrete necessary” is most often offered to those with strict financial limitations. The contractors offering this solution don’t care about your patio or home, they just want your money.With no concrete foundation you get a type of patio, but it’s really just a veneer laid on the ground.

How much concrete do i need?

A concrete patio or sidewalk slab or footing should be a minimum of 4 inches thick. This is sometimes reduced to around 3 1/2 inches due to preexisting structural limitations for biggest concrete companies in TEXAS . If you encounter space limitations, you really do need a good masonry contractor to resolve the issues with other options. this leads us to our next step.

concrete contractors

The 2nd step is hire a knowledgeable masonry contractor in TEXAS . Do a little research before you start getting pricing. Most good masonry contractors will be able to talk concrete chemistry and technology with you. Yes, I said technology. In the last 10 years there have been some really cool advances in concrete additives and mixes. These advances have provided solutions for the problems and limitations of old. A true patio or masonry professional will be able to talk shop with you, it’s his livelihood. A contractor who can’t do this or doesn’t seem comfortable is more than likely a novice at best. This should be the other red flag that goes up. Basically, Concrete slabs and mortar are like a cake mix. Correctly mixing the ingredients and correctly letting the slab or masonry product cure, are the factors that determine a good solid installation. Again, Talk with your contractor and Make sure he’s knowledgeable about the chemistry, additives and curing process of concrete & masonry. If he is this will ensure the likelihood of a great patio. 3rd step and last but definitely not least, Check references, check reviews and ask to see work they’ve done. Really check this stuff out and try to look at at least 1 job they have done. Ask point blank if the previous client is related to the contractor. Any resistance or confusion in this process would be red flag number

demolition of concrete

3.So, in order from 1 to 3. All masonry installations need a concrete footing. Make sure your patio contractor is knowledgeable about masonry chemistry, additives and enhancing solutions. Check references, reviews and stay away from the dirt cheap deals of a lifetime from any concrete contractor in TEXAS .If you get even 1 red flag, get another contractor. There are enough guys out there that do know what they’re doing.

Concrete Foundations And Construction Companies For Erecting Buildings

concrete wall demolition

Both commercial and residential buildings need strong concrete foundations to withstand the strains and pressures from extreme temperature changes that occur from season to season as well as moisture that will sometimes get into cracks and fissures and then expand when temperatures reach freezing. Concrete foundations do well in Texas clay soils, but it takes a company that knows how to build a good, strong foundation to ensure the foundation will last and provide the stability a commercial or residential building needs.There are many construction companies that build and repair concrete foundations. Some of these companies specialize in residential, some specialize in commercial foundations, and some do both. Foundation work includes leveling, crack and fissure repair.There are different types of concrete foundations. Crawl spaces are made of foundation walls and poured footing. The walls help to support the floor and walls of the building and protect the foundation during storms. It is also easier to access utilities with a crawl space which helps keep repair costs low. Crawl spaces must be properly insulated, because they can become moldy if they are not.Another consideration when choosing a concrete foundation company is to always deal with a licensed contractor that specializes in foundations and foundation repair. The company should be able to provide their insurance information and references if requested. Choosing a reputable company that is insured and which has a solid history of good business practices will make the difference between chaos and a good foundation that will serve well for years. Any references offered by a company should provide experts who understand or specialize in building or repairing foundations and have worked with the company providing the references.These are good questions to ask the concrete foundation companies before making a decision on which one to hire. Once finding a general contractor that provides the right answers, be sure to get a written estimate which includes a projected completion date. The company should also provide an on-site project supervisor to ensure the project is completed on time and in compliance with the customer's requirements.

A Simple Guide to Choosing Your Garage Storage

decorative concrete business

Sturdy, durable and economical, concrete is one of the most frequently used construction materials in the United States. Called pourable stone, it was once used by the Egyptians to build structures that still stand more than 3,600 years later. The standard concrete used by most Minneapolis general contractors combines sand, gravel and water with Portland cement.

Different Concretes and Their Uses

Many different varieties of concrete exist and a Minneapolis construction company generally chooses a particular variety for its purposes based on its particular compressive strength, a quality expressed in terms of pounds per square inch (psi) and megapascals (MPa). Some of the different types of concrete are:

Regular Concrete - Standard, or regular concrete, comes in a variety of pre-mixed packages that vary in their water-absorption and setting qualities, depending on the specific aggregates used. For the most part, regular concrete mixes offer a compressive strength in the range of 1450 psi (10 MPa) to 5800 psi (40 MPa). As such, it is not recommended for heavy, load-bearing structures. Minneapolis general contractors commonly use regular concrete for basic installations in residential buildings, for lining curbs and for strengthening sidewalks and driveways.

Shotcrete - Also known as Gunite, shotcrete is generally used where formwork is unnecessary, such as when building against rock surfaces or vertical soil. It is also used for rock support, especially while tunneling. In some cases, additives such as fiber reinforcement and accelerators may be added to the mix.

Concrete, in its myriad of forms, has become an indispensable part of our everyday life. All forms of concrete have to undergo the correct hydrating and hardening process to optimize their unique physical and chemical properties. In particular, care should be taken to mix the cement blend thoroughly in order to produce uniform, high-quality concrete. The right Minneapolis general contractor will be able to use a variety of types and styles of concrete to make your construction project the best and most cost-efficient that it can be.

TEXAS

Annetta concrete contractors delaware

How to Find a Good Patio Contractor

Have you decided you want a flagstone, limestone or concrete patio for your TEXAS home. Wondering how to get it done and who you should use? Well, I’m going to tell you how. I’m going to give you a step by step process stating the 3 red flags that signal a bad or uneducated [tag] contractor. These 3 things will ensure you get it done the right way, by the right small concrete contractors contractor in TEXAS .

Steps To Finding The Right Concrete Contractor in TEXAS

First step, first things first. Every Stone Installation Needs A Concrete Footing which might also be called a concrete foundation . This is not opinion but fact. If you want it done right and want it to withstand the test of time, this is the way it’s done, no exceptions. A red flag should go up when any contractor is offering bypassing a concrete foundation as a cost saving option. Unfortunately 85% of the small concrete contractors contractors out there will tell you they can lay the stone right on top of compacted granite or base material. This type of contractor is exactly who you want to avoid. While what they are recommending to you gives the appearance of a patio, it won’t withstand the climate, erosion and soil movement beneath the patio in TEXAS .

BEWARE OF CONCRETE CONTRACTOR SCAMS

concrete contractors

You might get a few crackless years at best, until it begins to fall apart. This method is the most recommended scam or shortcut of trying to lower pricing and still get the job. Notice the price came down because the concrete footing was removed from the job cost. This option of ” no concrete necessary” is most often offered to those with strict financial limitations. The contractors offering this solution don’t care about your patio or home, they just want your money.With no concrete foundation you get a type of patio, but it’s really just a veneer laid on the ground.

How much concrete do i need?

A concrete patio or sidewalk slab or footing should be a minimum of 4 inches thick. This is sometimes reduced to around 3 1/2 inches due to preexisting structural limitations for small concrete contractors in TEXAS . If you encounter space limitations, you really do need a good masonry contractor to resolve the issues with other options. this leads us to our next step.

concrete firms

The 2nd step is hire a knowledgeable masonry contractor in TEXAS . Do a little research before you start getting pricing. Most good masonry contractors will be able to talk concrete chemistry and technology with you. Yes, I said technology. In the last 10 years there have been some really cool advances in concrete additives and mixes. These advances have provided solutions for the problems and limitations of old. A true patio or masonry professional will be able to talk shop with you, it’s his livelihood. A contractor who can’t do this or doesn’t seem comfortable is more than likely a novice at best. This should be the other red flag that goes up. Basically, Concrete slabs and mortar are like a cake mix. Correctly mixing the ingredients and correctly letting the slab or masonry product cure, are the factors that determine a good solid installation. Again, Talk with your contractor and Make sure he’s knowledgeable about the chemistry, additives and curing process of concrete & masonry. If he is this will ensure the likelihood of a great patio. 3rd step and last but definitely not least, Check references, check reviews and ask to see work they’ve done. Really check this stuff out and try to look at at least 1 job they have done. Ask point blank if the previous client is related to the contractor. Any resistance or confusion in this process would be red flag number

concrete resurfacing contractors

3.So, in order from 1 to 3. All masonry installations need a concrete footing. Make sure your patio contractor is knowledgeable about masonry chemistry, additives and enhancing solutions. Check references, reviews and stay away from the dirt cheap deals of a lifetime from any concrete contractor in TEXAS .If you get even 1 red flag, get another contractor. There are enough guys out there that do know what they’re doing.

Concrete

concrete contractors

Precast concrete products have evolved over the years and now their use is widespread in many industries. The endless ability to innovate with concrete means that as new technologies have been developed the scope for different products has increased dramatically.Construction is one of the main and most obvious uses for concrete. As the industry has developed the number of products and their applicability has had dramatic effects in terms of reducing and simplifying building projects. Products include retaining walls, foundations, flooring (hollowcore, block and beam), beams, lintels, bridges, cladding, complete precast structures... the list could go on. As engineers and designers get their heads around the possibilities, the number of products and applications increases. Agriculture offers a variety of opportunities for utilising concrete products. Silage clamps, slurry stores, slurry channels, grain stores, retaining walls, suspended flooring systems, feed and water troughs. Due to concrete's strength and ability to withstand extreme conditions it is ideal for this type of use.Traffic and roads provide another environment where concrete products play a major part. Whether it be concrete barriers, or retaining walls at the side of roads; concrete products are widely used on our roads.Utilites, water and waste products offer another range of applications. Manholes, water tanks, culverts, septic tanks and many more products which play a major part in this area of business. Concrete products are everywhere around us and provide countless benefits and opportunities. As new technology is introduced the scope for further products increases and hopefully so will the benefits we derive from them. The above articles lists some of the main uses for these products, but by no stretch of the imagination is this an exhaustive list!

Don't Hire a Concrete Contractor Before You Read This!

decorative concrete business

Making a decision on a concrete company is not always an easy one. There's are a lot of information you are going to to need to make an educated choice.

For example:

* How do they come recommended to me?
* How long have they been in business?
* Are they licensed,bonded and insured in the city I live in?
* Can I see previous work they've done
* What type of mix are the going to use
* Do they warranty their work if so, for how long.

In Ohio, Exterior mix, such as driveways, patios porches should be no less than 6.5 sack or 4000psi. Interior concrete no less than 6 sack or 3000psi. Concrete helps to beautify our homes and whether it's to park our vehicle on or to put our outside furniture on it lasts a long time. Choose your contractor wisely. I hope this information helps you.

TEXAS

Hilshire Village top concrete contractors

How to Find a Good Patio Contractor

Have you decided you want a flagstone, limestone or concrete patio for your TEXAS home. Wondering how to get it done and who you should use? Well, I’m going to tell you how. I’m going to give you a step by step process stating the 3 red flags that signal a bad or uneducated [tag] contractor. These 3 things will ensure you get it done the right way, by the right licensed concrete contractors contractor in TEXAS .

Steps To Finding The Right Concrete Contractor in TEXAS

First step, first things first. Every Stone Installation Needs A Concrete Footing which might also be called a concrete foundation . This is not opinion but fact. If you want it done right and want it to withstand the test of time, this is the way it’s done, no exceptions. A red flag should go up when any contractor is offering bypassing a concrete foundation as a cost saving option. Unfortunately 85% of the licensed concrete contractors contractors out there will tell you they can lay the stone right on top of compacted granite or base material. This type of contractor is exactly who you want to avoid. While what they are recommending to you gives the appearance of a patio, it won’t withstand the climate, erosion and soil movement beneath the patio in TEXAS .

BEWARE OF CONCRETE CONTRACTOR SCAMS

concrete floor companies

You might get a few crackless years at best, until it begins to fall apart. This method is the most recommended scam or shortcut of trying to lower pricing and still get the job. Notice the price came down because the concrete footing was removed from the job cost. This option of ” no concrete necessary” is most often offered to those with strict financial limitations. The contractors offering this solution don’t care about your patio or home, they just want your money.With no concrete foundation you get a type of patio, but it’s really just a veneer laid on the ground.

How much concrete do i need?

A concrete patio or sidewalk slab or footing should be a minimum of 4 inches thick. This is sometimes reduced to around 3 1/2 inches due to preexisting structural limitations for licensed concrete contractors in TEXAS . If you encounter space limitations, you really do need a good masonry contractor to resolve the issues with other options. this leads us to our next step.

concrete slab foundation

The 2nd step is hire a knowledgeable masonry contractor in TEXAS . Do a little research before you start getting pricing. Most good masonry contractors will be able to talk concrete chemistry and technology with you. Yes, I said technology. In the last 10 years there have been some really cool advances in concrete additives and mixes. These advances have provided solutions for the problems and limitations of old. A true patio or masonry professional will be able to talk shop with you, it’s his livelihood. A contractor who can’t do this or doesn’t seem comfortable is more than likely a novice at best. This should be the other red flag that goes up. Basically, Concrete slabs and mortar are like a cake mix. Correctly mixing the ingredients and correctly letting the slab or masonry product cure, are the factors that determine a good solid installation. Again, Talk with your contractor and Make sure he’s knowledgeable about the chemistry, additives and curing process of concrete & masonry. If he is this will ensure the likelihood of a great patio. 3rd step and last but definitely not least, Check references, check reviews and ask to see work they’ve done. Really check this stuff out and try to look at at least 1 job they have done. Ask point blank if the previous client is related to the contractor. Any resistance or confusion in this process would be red flag number

concrete slab foundation

3.So, in order from 1 to 3. All masonry installations need a concrete footing. Make sure your patio contractor is knowledgeable about masonry chemistry, additives and enhancing solutions. Check references, reviews and stay away from the dirt cheap deals of a lifetime from any concrete contractor in TEXAS .If you get even 1 red flag, get another contractor. There are enough guys out there that do know what they’re doing.

List of construction trades

residential concrete construction

Concrete Marketing is an independent marketing company based in New York, USA, founded by Bob Chiappardi and Walter O'Brien in 1984.

Concrete Marketing was founded by Bob Chiappardi and Walter O'Brien in 1984.[1] Chiappardi was working in the mail room of Arista Records in New York whilst managing a few bands from Long Island and O'Brien was the founder of Relativity/Combat Records. The company name was chosen by plucking a name blindly from the Yellow Pages.[1] Concrete’s first client was RCA’s Grim Reaper. It was during the group's first tour that Chiappardi and O'Brien decided to start working as a marketing company, realizing that there were few people out there to properly service the metal community.[1]

During the 1984 New Music Seminarthey distributed around 200 flyers advertising Concrete and its services and by the end of the first day they had been approached by Rick Dobbis, then VP of marketing at Chrysalis Records, and were hired to work the first full length Armoured Saint record.[1]

In 1990 Chiappardi and O’Brien amicably split as business partners with Chiappardi taking the helm of Concrete Marketing and several other companies they had created, whilst Walter O’Brien took Concrete Management,[2] the management company that looked after Pantera, White Zombie and Prong.[3]

In 1992 the company began ‘Concrete Corner’, the purpose of which was the promotion and distribution of heavy metal records. This was achieved at a retail level by creating a unified sales force from the blending of independent and select chain stores that would adopt the program thus promoting select hard rock/metal/hardcore/alternative releases.

The format of the program was a store within a store concept and featured point of purchase displays, instore play, sales pricing, clerk recommendations and 15,000 monthly sampler CDs.[4] A free hard music magazine ‘Concrete Corner’ was available for the consumer, while ‘Network Newz’ provided information for the store owner.[5] Key reasoning behind these strategies was that small retailers fared better with niche markets such as heavy metal.

Occasionally for selected record launches, listening parties and midnight sales would be held the day before the release of the album proper.[6] The first listening party and midnight sale, in which 318 of the 325 stores participated, was for a Metallica boxset.

Listening parties would be advertised through instore banners, syndicated radio shows, and in magazines that featured the SoundScan hard music chart, owned by Concrete.[4] Invitations would go out to Concrete’s 20,000 strong database of fans and stores would invite their targeted customers by mail.[6]

The program was successful in offering more to the consumer who received freebies, discounts and won raffle prizes; to the store whose staff won prizes for the best display and to the label which could be certain that their product was being pushed to their target audience.

Other promotions that spun off Concrete Corner were "bonus disc" giveaways, where a bonus disc of artists from different labels was shrink wrapped to a highly anticipated new release from one of Concrete's clients.[7] The first of these type of promotions was for Korn’s album ‘Follow the Leader’ in which 100,000 copies of a compilation CD featuring tracks of breakthrough artists approved by Korn, as well as a previously unreleased Korn track were given away to each person who purchased the record. Baby band artists, at the time, featured on the first disc included Kid Rock, Powerman 5000, Orgy and Limp Bizkit.[1] Subsequent programs like this were executed for Megadeth and Rob Zombie,[8] among others.

In 1994, a Concrete Corner Tour was also put together. The concept of the tour was to initiate monthly events in each city where the tour was routed, with the focus of the shows being more on creating an affordable, fun evening of music[9] rather than being based specifically on recognition of the bands' names. This club tour allowed for the exposure of the bands to ticketholders who may not have seen them otherwise. Shows featured raffles and giveaways, and the first in the tour series saw Greta, Varga and Shootyz Groove take to the road.[10]

In 1998 Concrete Corner and Concrete Marketing won the ‘Related Products and Services Supplier of the Year’ award from National Association of Recording Merchandisers (NARM),[11] the trade organization of music retail industry. This was the first time this award was ever presented. In subsequent years, Concrete was nominated two more times.

RetailVision was a service Concrete provided which was based upon in-store video play. Concrete kept a database of 1200 stores nationwide, organized by genre in order to provide appropriate video reel compilations to each in the four genres of alternative (AlternateVision), rap (RapVision), hard rock (MetalVision) and pop music (HitVision).[8] The appropriate video cassette was distributed to each of the stores which allowed the active consumer to see all the new hits, while at the same time let new bands reach a wider audience because of the ever-expanding record store network. With this program, Concrete could help promote 30 - 40 new bands/songs a month.[5] Bands were selected for RetailVision via a regular weekly meeting of heavy metal fans who could vote for their favorite entries, thus helping the program maintain credibility and quality.[5]

Before producing Foundations, the first exclusively heavy metal trade publication, Concrete were contributing to Friday Morning Quarterback (FMQB). By the time they had worked the first Metallica record and the second Anthrax record and were beginning to amass a lot of metal clients, they decided it was time to begin their own newsletter, and so the first issue of Foundations was distributed in January 1988.

It was a bi-weekly publication that provided release information, tour itineraries and a breakdown of all Concrete's current projects, the idea behind it being that it should mimic the underground fanzines that were rife within the scene. It also featured the Concrete/Soundscan Hard Music chart. This chart was also syndicated not only in US regional publications such as Radioactive, Good Times and The Aquarian, but also in worldwide publications like Entertainment Weekly, Metal Hammer and Guitar World, reaching a combined readership of somewhere in the region of three million.[12]

The Use of Formwork in Construction

decorative concrete business

Many people use their garage to store anything that they can’t or would rather not have in their living space. With valuable space at a premium, people are often forced to keep their lawn mower, gardening implements, tools, sports materials, bicycles and seasonal items in their garage. If you have room in your garage for anything but your car, then it might be time to invest in quality garage storage solutions.

Step into your garage and what do you see? Maybe some unopened boxes from when you moved in a few years ago. You have no idea what’s inside them but you also don’t want to throw them away. You see your old golf clubs, musty and covered in cobwebs. You try to remember the last time you played golf but it escapes you. You move around some boxes to make space and you find the bikes your children have outgrown, and toys they no longer play with. You remember your youngest is going to uni in a couple of months. But where’s your car? Oh, right, it’s parked out in the street.

Quality storage can help give your garage some much-needed organisation. Some would say, “Garages are meant to be messy.” Anybody who has said that has never had the benefit of a tidy garage. Organising your garage can help reduce the clutter, make finding and storing things easier and more convenient, and most importantly, free up space. Getting the most out of your garage space is the goal, and to do so you must plan carefully what to store, how to store it, and where it should be placed. Here are a few tips and pointers for taking your garage back.

What to keep in your garage

Even if you’ve invested in expensive home security cameras and alarms, your garage is rarely as secure as the rest of your home. Garage doors and windows are most likely to be left unlocked or open. If you’re storing items of value in your garage or thinking of doing it, It is important that you take measures to secure the space to prevent unauthorised access and theft.

The conditions in the garage are also sure to be different from the rest of your home. Garages are seldom climate-controlled, and you will need to modify the room before storing items that are sensitive to temperature and humidity. However, garages are excellent spaces for storing non-perishable food so you better take advantage of bulk discounts at your supermarket.

Measuring the garage

When taking measurements for anything, be sure to measure twice and do it once more to be 100% certain. Getting the wrong measurements could cost you a lot of time, effort and money. Be sure to get the accurate width, length and height of the area where you want to add storage. Double-check if the walls are at an exact right angle.

When planning the layout, take into consideration the locations of plumbing and wiring as the storage solutions may impede access to these. You don’t want to tear down your cabinets just so the plumber can inspect a pipe that may or may not be leaky.

Lastly, when thinking about the space you need, volume almost always beats area. Storage with a small footprint but wide clearance is always better than one with a wide area but low clearance.

Storage cabinets

Storage cabinets are the most common storage solution for garages. Many people find them to be the best option, as they can be used to store practically anything. Storage cabinets typically fall under three categories: base cabinets, wall cabinets and utility storage.

If you want to maximise your storage without using floor space, then mounted wall cabinets are your option. If not set too high, mounted wall cabinets allow for immediate access to storage without taking up space on the floor. Wall mounted cabinets can be either horizontal (wide footprint, low clearance), or vertical (narrow footprint, high clearance).

For freestanding storage, you can always go for a utility storage cabinet. Perfect for small lawn care items, gardening supplies and other accessories, utility storage cabinets can comfortably fit long, narrow items, and can include partitions and interior shelving.

Base cabinets are similar to modular kitchen counters, and are a cheaper alternative to inbuilt cabinets. A standard base cabinet has two or three drawers, or a combination of drawers and shelves. They can also include features like key locks, countertops and rubber edges for protection.

Storage racks

If you own bicycles, sports equipment or gardening tools like spades and rakes, storage racks are a must-have for your garage. Storage racks allow easy access to commonly-used objects while keeping clutter and accidents to a minimum. It can be either wall-mounted or freestanding.

You can have a dedicated storage rack for your sports equipment, one for gardening and another one for general hardware. These racks can feature protective mesh, utility trays or side hooks.

Ceiling mounted racks are useful for seasonal or rarely used items. They utilize ceiling space instead of wall or floor space, so the positioning of lights in the garage should be taken into account. Ceiling mounted racks are only recommended if space is limited.

Conclusion

Clearing your garage and organising its contents and layout takes practice and planning. Check your garage needs and wants so you can optimise the space to its fullest extent. But adding in racks and cabinets is half the work— you have to strive to keep your garage clean and free of pests. Your garage may be better organised now, but it’s barely better than your old one if it’s infested with rats and cockroaches.

TEXAS

Westover Hills licensed concrete contractors

How to Find a Good Patio Contractor

Have you decided you want a flagstone, limestone or concrete patio for your TEXAS home. Wondering how to get it done and who you should use? Well, I’m going to tell you how. I’m going to give you a step by step process stating the 3 red flags that signal a bad or uneducated [tag] contractor. These 3 things will ensure you get it done the right way, by the right top concrete contractors contractor in TEXAS .

Steps To Finding The Right Concrete Contractor in TEXAS

First step, first things first. Every Stone Installation Needs A Concrete Footing which might also be called a concrete foundation . This is not opinion but fact. If you want it done right and want it to withstand the test of time, this is the way it’s done, no exceptions. A red flag should go up when any contractor is offering bypassing a concrete foundation as a cost saving option. Unfortunately 85% of the top concrete contractors contractors out there will tell you they can lay the stone right on top of compacted granite or base material. This type of contractor is exactly who you want to avoid. While what they are recommending to you gives the appearance of a patio, it won’t withstand the climate, erosion and soil movement beneath the patio in TEXAS .

BEWARE OF CONCRETE CONTRACTOR SCAMS

concrete contractors

You might get a few crackless years at best, until it begins to fall apart. This method is the most recommended scam or shortcut of trying to lower pricing and still get the job. Notice the price came down because the concrete footing was removed from the job cost. This option of ” no concrete necessary” is most often offered to those with strict financial limitations. The contractors offering this solution don’t care about your patio or home, they just want your money.With no concrete foundation you get a type of patio, but it’s really just a veneer laid on the ground.

How much concrete do i need?

A concrete patio or sidewalk slab or footing should be a minimum of 4 inches thick. This is sometimes reduced to around 3 1/2 inches due to preexisting structural limitations for top concrete contractors in TEXAS . If you encounter space limitations, you really do need a good masonry contractor to resolve the issues with other options. this leads us to our next step.

concrete resurfacing contractors

The 2nd step is hire a knowledgeable masonry contractor in TEXAS . Do a little research before you start getting pricing. Most good masonry contractors will be able to talk concrete chemistry and technology with you. Yes, I said technology. In the last 10 years there have been some really cool advances in concrete additives and mixes. These advances have provided solutions for the problems and limitations of old. A true patio or masonry professional will be able to talk shop with you, it’s his livelihood. A contractor who can’t do this or doesn’t seem comfortable is more than likely a novice at best. This should be the other red flag that goes up. Basically, Concrete slabs and mortar are like a cake mix. Correctly mixing the ingredients and correctly letting the slab or masonry product cure, are the factors that determine a good solid installation. Again, Talk with your contractor and Make sure he’s knowledgeable about the chemistry, additives and curing process of concrete & masonry. If he is this will ensure the likelihood of a great patio. 3rd step and last but definitely not least, Check references, check reviews and ask to see work they’ve done. Really check this stuff out and try to look at at least 1 job they have done. Ask point blank if the previous client is related to the contractor. Any resistance or confusion in this process would be red flag number

residential concrete construction

3.So, in order from 1 to 3. All masonry installations need a concrete footing. Make sure your patio contractor is knowledgeable about masonry chemistry, additives and enhancing solutions. Check references, reviews and stay away from the dirt cheap deals of a lifetime from any concrete contractor in TEXAS .If you get even 1 red flag, get another contractor. There are enough guys out there that do know what they’re doing.

U.S. Concrete, Inc

concrete foundation installation

Most decent size construction projects usually require the need for a concrete cutting contractor. Quite often medium and large construction projects require utilities to moved, added or relocate to different areas. A concrete cutting company can provide the solution for access and relocation of utilities. Concrete flat saws are used to cut floors for access underneath existing slabs. Wall sawing cuts square or rectangle openings in walls. Core drilling cuts round holes in walls and floors. Gaining access opening in floors and wall allows utilities to be relocated or passed through or moved to other locationsHowever, before you hire the first concrete cutting company in the phone book, a little homework should be a priority before hiring a contractor for your project. Concrete cutting, wall sawing, concrete breaking and removal is dangerous work. Spending a little time before you hire someone can pay great dividends and greatly reduce your exposure to liability. Have your concrete cutting contractor provide you with three documents before he starts work. Have the contractor provide you with his license number and have it checked out. Make sure its authentic and up to date. Most states have a government run entity that allows anyone to check the status of any contractor in their state. Also have the contractor provide you with a copy of his Workers Compensation policy and a copy of his Liability Insurance Policy. You will be well served to have all three documents provided to you before anyone sets foot on you project. Having all three documents current, and in good standing most likely tells me the contractor is running a reputable business. If he can't provide you with all three, move along and call another company. If a contractor does not have all three documents and he starts work on your project, the owner, or company hiring the contractor may be exposed to liability should something go wrong; such as, an injury on the project. Concrete cutting, wall sawing, concrete breaking and removal is dangerous work. It involves large motorized machinery and saw blades spinning at high RPM. The potential for something to go wrong is always present, so don't add more risk and liability to yourself by not checking out who is working for you. A few extra minutes before can save you a lot of grief in the future. So plan ahead and research the contracting company before you hire. Say no to anyone who can not provide you the necessary documentation. This rule should apply to any contractor, or subcontractor.

Spancrete

concrete repair contractor "Boulder Dam" redirects here. For other uses, see Boulder Dam (disambiguation).

Hoover Dam, originally known as Boulder Dam from 1933 to 1947, when it was officially renamed Hoover Dam by a joint resolution of Congress, is a concrete arch-gravity dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, on the border between the U.S. states of Nevada and Arizona. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936 during the Great Depression and was dedicated on September 30, 1935, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Its construction was the result of a massive effort involving thousands of workers, and cost over one hundred lives. The dam was named after President Herbert Hoover.

Since about 1900, the Black Canyon and nearby Boulder Canyon had been investigated for their potential to support a dam that would control floods, provide irrigation water and produce hydroelectric power. In 1928, Congress authorized the project. The winning bid to build the dam was submitted by a consortium called Six Companies, Inc., which began construction on the dam in early 1931. Such a large concrete structure had never been built before, and some of the techniques were unproven. The torrid summer weather and lack of facilities near the site also presented difficulties. Nevertheless, Six Companies turned over the dam to the federal government on March 1, 1936, more than two years ahead of schedule.

Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the United States by volume (when it is full).[5] The dam is located near Boulder City, Nevada, a municipality originally constructed for workers on the construction project, about 30 mi (48 km) southeast of Las Vegas, Nevada. The dam's generators provide power for public and private utilities in Nevada, Arizona, and California. Hoover Dam is a major tourist attraction; nearly a million people tour the dam each year. The heavily traveled U.S. Route 93 (US 93) ran along the dam's crest until October 2010, when the Hoover Dam Bypass opened.

As the United States developed the Southwest, the Colorado River was seen as a potential source of irrigation water. An initial attempt at diverting the river for irrigation purposes occurred in the late 1890s, when land speculator William Beatty built the Alamo Canal just north of the Mexican border; the canal dipped into Mexico before running to a desolate area Beatty named the Imperial Valley.[6] Though water from the Imperial Canal allowed for the widespread settlement of the valley, the canal proved expensive to maintain. After a catastrophic breach that caused the Colorado River to fill the Salton Sea,[7] the Southern Pacific Railroad spent $3 million in 1906–07 to stabilize the waterway, an amount it hoped vainly would be reimbursed by the Federal Government. Even after the waterway was stabilized, it proved unsatisfactory because of constant disputes with landowners on the Mexican side of the border.[8]

River view of the future site of Hoover Dam, circa 1904

As the technology of electric power transmission improved, the Lower Colorado was considered for its hydroelectric-power potential. In 1902, the Edison Electric Company of Los Angeles surveyed the river in the hope of building a 40-foot (12 m) rock dam which could generate 10,000 horsepower (7,500 kW). However, at the time, the limit of transmission of electric power was 80 miles (130 km), and there were few customers (mostly mines) within that limit. Edison allowed land options it held on the river to lapse—including an option for what became the site of Hoover Dam.[9]

In the following years, the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR), known as the Reclamation Service at the time, also considered the Lower Colorado as the site for a dam. Service chief Arthur Powell Davis proposed using dynamite to collapse the walls of Boulder Canyon,[10] 20 miles (32 km) north of the eventual dam site, into the river.[11] The river would carry off the smaller pieces of debris, and a dam would be built incorporating the remaining rubble. In 1922, after considering it for several years, the Reclamation Service finally rejected the proposal, citing doubts about the unproven technique and questions as to whether it would in fact save money.[10]

Sketch of proposed Boulder Canyon dam site and reservoir, circa 1921

In 1922, the Reclamation Service presented a report calling for the development of a dam on the Colorado River for flood control and electric power generation. The report was principally authored by Davis, and was called the Fall-Davis report after Interior Secretary Albert Fall. The Fall-Davis report cited use of the Colorado River as a federal concern, because the river's basin covered several states, and the river eventually entered Mexico.[12] Though the Fall-Davis report called for a dam "at or near Boulder Canyon", the Reclamation Service (which was renamed the Bureau of Reclamation the following year) found that canyon unsuitable.[13] One potential site at Boulder Canyon was bisected by a geologic fault; two others were so narrow there was no space for a construction camp at the bottom of the canyon[13] or for a spillway. The Service investigated Black Canyon and found it ideal; a railway could be laid from the railhead in Las Vegas to the top of the dam site.[14] Despite the site change, the dam project was referred to as the "Boulder Canyon Project".[15]

With little guidance on water allocation from the Supreme Court, proponents of the dam feared endless litigation. A Colorado attorney proposed that the seven states which fell within the river's basin (California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Colorado and Wyoming) form an interstate compact, with the approval of Congress. Such compacts were authorized by Article I of the United States Constitution but had never been concluded among more than two states. In 1922, representatives of seven states met with then-Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover.[16] Initial talks produced no result, but when the Supreme Court handed down the Wyoming v. Colorado decision undermining the claims of the upstream states, they became anxious to reach an agreement. The resulting Colorado River Compact was signed on November 24, 1922.[17]

Legislation to authorize the dam was introduced repeatedly by Representative Phil Swing (R-Calif.) and Senator Hiram Johnson (R-Calif.), but representatives from other parts of the country considered the project as hugely expensive and one that would mostly benefit California. The 1927 Mississippi flood made Midwestern and Southern congressmen and senators more sympathetic toward the dam project. On March 12, 1928, the failure of the St. Francis Dam, constructed by the city of Los Angeles, caused a disastrous flood that killed up to 600 people. As that dam was a curved-gravity type,[18] similar in design to the arch-gravity as was proposed for the Black Canyon dam, opponents claimed that the Black Canyon dam's safety could not be guaranteed. Congress authorized a board of engineers to review plans for the proposed dam. The Colorado River Board found the project feasible, but warned that should the dam fail, every downstream Colorado River community would be destroyed, and that the river might change course and empty into the Salton Sea. The Board cautioned: "To avoid such possibilities, the proposed dam should be constructed on conservative if not ultra-conservative lines."[19]

On December 21, 1928 President Coolidge signed the bill authorizing the dam.[20] The Boulder Canyon Project Act appropriated $165 million for the Hoover Dam along with the downstream Imperial Dam and All-American Canal, a replacement for Beatty's canal entirely on the U.S. side of the border.[21] It also permitted the compact to go into effect when at least six of the seven states approved it. This occurred on March 6, 1929 with Utah's ratification; Arizona did not approve it until 1944.[22]

Hoover Dam architectural plans

Even before Congress approved the Boulder Canyon Project, the Bureau of Reclamation was considering what kind of dam should be used. Officials eventually decided on a massive concrete arch-gravity dam, the design of which was overseen by the Bureau's chief design engineer John L. Savage. The monolithic dam would be thick at the bottom and thin near the top, and would present a convex face towards the water above the dam. The curving arch of the dam would transmit the water's force into the abutments, in this case the rock walls of the canyon. The wedge-shaped dam would be 660 ft (200 m) thick at the bottom, narrowing to 45 ft (14 m) at the top, leaving room for a highway connecting Nevada and Arizona.[23]

On January 10, 1931, the Bureau made the bid documents available to interested parties, at five dollars a copy. The government was to provide the materials; but the contractor was to prepare the site and build the dam. The dam was described in minute detail, covering 100 pages of text and 76 drawings. A $2 million bid bond was to accompany each bid; the winner would have to post a $5 million performance bond. The contractor had seven years to build the dam, or penalties would ensue.[24]

The Wattis Brothers, heads of the Utah Construction Company, were interested in bidding on the project, but lacked the money for the performance bond. They lacked sufficient resources even in combination with their longtime partners, Morrison-Knudsen, which employed the nation's leading dam builder, Frank Crowe. They formed a joint venture to bid for the project with Pacific Bridge Company of Portland, Oregon; Henry J. Kaiser & W. A. Bechtel Company of San Francisco; MacDonald & Kahn Ltd. of Los Angeles; and the J.F. Shea Company of Portland, Oregon.[25] The joint venture was called Six Companies, Inc. as Bechtel and Kaiser were considered one company for purposes of 6 in the name. The name was descriptive and was an inside joke among the San Franciscans in the bid, where "Six Companies" was also a Chinese benevolent association in the city.[26] There were three valid bids, and Six Companies' bid of $48,890,955 was the lowest, within $24,000 of the confidential government estimate of what the dam would cost to build, and five million dollars less than the next-lowest bid.[27]

The city of Las Vegas had lobbied hard to be the headquarters for the dam construction, closing its many speakeasies when the decision maker, Secretary of the Interior Ray Wilbur came to town. Instead, Wilbur announced in early 1930 that a model city was to be built in the desert near the dam site. This town became known as Boulder City, Nevada. Construction of a rail line joining Las Vegas and the dam site began in September 1930.[28]

Workers on a "Jumbo Rig"; used for drilling Hoover Dam's tunnels "Apache Indians employed as high-scalers on the construction of Hoover Dam." – NARA

Soon after the dam was authorized, increasing numbers of unemployed people converged on southern Nevada. Las Vegas, then a small city of some 5,000, saw between 10,000 and 20,000 unemployed descend on it.[29] A government camp was established for surveyors and other personnel near the dam site; this soon became surrounded by a squatters' camp. Known as McKeeversville, the camp was home to men hoping for work on the project, together with their families.[30] Another camp, on the flats along the Colorado River, was officially called Williamsville, but was known to its inhabitants as "Ragtown".[31] When construction began, Six Companies hired large numbers of workers, with more than 3,000 on the payroll by 1932[32] and with employment peaking at 5,251 in July 1934.[33] "Mongolian" (Chinese) labor was prevented by the construction contract,[33] while the number of blacks employed by Six Companies never exceeded thirty, mostly lowest-pay-scale laborers in a segregated crew, who were issued separate water buckets.[34]

As part of the contract, Six Companies, Inc. was to build Boulder City to house the workers. The original timetable called for Boulder City to be built before the dam project began, but President Hoover ordered work on the dam to begin in March 1931 rather than in October.[35] The company built bunkhouses, attached to the canyon wall, to house 480 single men at what became known as River Camp. Workers with families were left to provide their own accommodations until Boulder City could be completed,[36] and many lived in Ragtown.[37] The site of Hoover Dam endures extremely hot weather, and the summer of 1931 was especially torrid, with the daytime high averaging 119.9 °F (48.8 °C).[38] Sixteen workers and other riverbank residents died of heat prostration between June 25 and July 26, 1931.[39]

General Superintendent Frank Crowe (right) with Bureau of Reclamation engineer Walker Young in 1935

The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or "Wobblies"), though much-reduced from their heyday as militant labor organizers in the early years of the century, hoped to unionize the Six Companies workers by capitalizing on their discontent. They sent eleven organizers,[40] several of whom were arrested by Las Vegas police.[41] On August 7, 1931, the company cut wages for all tunnel workers. Although the workers sent away the organizers, not wanting to be associated with the "Wobblies", they formed a committee to represent them with the company. The committee drew up a list of demands that evening and presented them to Crowe the following morning. He was noncommittal. The workers hoped that Crowe, the general superintendent of the job, would be sympathetic; instead he gave a scathing interview to a newspaper, describing the workers as "malcontents".[42]

On the morning of the 9th, Crowe met with the committee and told them that management refused their demands, was stopping all work, and was laying off the entire work force, except for a few office workers and carpenters. The workers were given until 5 p.m. to vacate the premises. Concerned that a violent confrontation was imminent, most workers took their paychecks and left for Las Vegas to await developments.[43] Two days later, the remainder were talked into leaving by law enforcement. On August 13, the company began hiring workers again, and two days later, the strike was called off.[44] While the workers received none of their demands, the company guaranteed there would be no further reductions in wages. Living conditions began to improve as the first residents moved into Boulder City in late 1931.[45]

A second labor action took place in July 1935, as construction on the dam wound down. When a Six Companies manager altered working times to force workers to take lunch on their own time, workers responded with a strike. Emboldened by Crowe's reversal of the lunch decree, workers raised their demands to include a $1-per-day raise. The company agreed to ask the Federal government to supplement the pay, but no money was forthcoming from Washington. The strike ended.[46]

Overview of dam mechanisms; diversion tunnels shown

Before the dam could be built, the Colorado River needed to be diverted away from the construction site. To accomplish this, four diversion tunnels were driven through the canyon walls, two on the Nevada side and two on the Arizona side. These tunnels were 56 ft (17 m) in diameter.[47] Their combined length was nearly 16,000 ft, or more than 3 miles (5 km).[48] The contract required these tunnels to be completed by October 1, 1933, with a $3,000-per-day fine to be assessed for any delay. To meet the deadline, Six Companies had to complete work by early 1933, since only in late fall and winter was the water level in the river low enough to safely divert.[49]

Tunneling began at the lower portals of the Nevada tunnels in May 1931. Shortly afterward, work began on two similar tunnels in the Arizona canyon wall. In March 1932, work began on lining the tunnels with concrete. First the base, or invert, was poured. Gantry cranes, running on rails through the entire length of each tunnel were used to place the concrete. The sidewalls were poured next. Movable sections of steel forms were used for the sidewalls. Finally, using pneumatic guns, the overheads were filled in. The concrete lining is 3 feet (1 m) thick, reducing the finished tunnel diameter to 50 ft (15 m).[48] The river was diverted into the two Arizona tunnels on November 13, 1932; the Nevada tunnels were kept in reserve for high water. This was done by exploding a temporary cofferdam protecting the Arizona tunnels while at the same time dumping rubble into the river until its natural course was blocked.[50]

Following the completion of the dam, the entrances to the two outer diversion tunnels were sealed at the opening and halfway through the tunnels with large concrete plugs. The downstream halves of the tunnels following the inner plugs are now the main bodies of the spillway tunnels.[48] The inner diversion tunnels were plugged at approximately one-third of their length, beyond which they now carry steel pipes connecting the intake towers to the power plant and outlet works.[47] The inner tunnels' outlets are equipped with gates that can be closed to drain the tunnels for maintenance.[47]

To protect the construction site from the Colorado River and to facilitate the river's diversion, two cofferdams were constructed. Work on the upper cofferdam began in September 1932, even though the river had not yet been diverted.[51] The cofferdams were designed to protect against the possibility of the river flooding a site at which two thousand men might be at work, and their specifications were covered in the bid documents in nearly as much detail as the dam itself. The upper cofferdam was 96 ft (29 m) high, and 750 feet (230 m) thick at its base, thicker than the dam itself. It contained 650,000 cubic yards (500,000 m3) of material.[52]

Looking down at "high scalers" above the Colorado River

When the cofferdams were in place and the construction site was drained of water, excavation for the dam foundation began. For the dam to rest on solid rock, it was necessary to remove accumulated erosion soils and other loose materials in the riverbed until sound bedrock was reached. Work on the foundation excavations was completed in June 1933. During this excavation, approximately 1,500,000 cu yd (1,100,000 m3) of material was removed. Since the dam was an arch-gravity type, the side-walls of the canyon would bear the force of the impounded lake. Therefore, the side-walls were excavated too, to reach virgin rock as weathered rock might provide pathways for water seepage.[51]

The men who removed this rock were called "high scalers". While suspended from the top of the canyon with ropes, the high-scalers climbed down the canyon walls and removed the loose rock with jackhammers and dynamite. Falling objects were the most common cause of death on the dam site; the high scalers' work thus helped ensure worker safety.[53] One high scaler was able to save life in a more direct manner: when a government inspector lost his grip on a safety line and began tumbling down a slope towards almost certain death, a high scaler was able to intercept him and pull him into the air. The construction site had, even then, become a magnet for tourists; the high scalers were prime attractions and showed off for the watchers. The high scalers received considerable media attention, with one worker dubbed the "Human Pendulum" for swinging co-workers (and, at other times, cases of dynamite) across the canyon.[54] To protect themselves against falling objects, some high scalers took cloth hats and dipped them in tar, allowing them to harden. When workers wearing such headgear were struck hard enough to inflict broken jaws, they sustained no skull damage, Six Companies ordered thousands of what initially were called "hard boiled hats" (later "hard hats") and strongly encouraged their use.[55]

The cleared, underlying rock foundation of the dam site was reinforced with grout, called a grout curtain. Holes were driven into the walls and base of the canyon, as deep as 150 feet (46 m) into the rock, and any cavities encountered were to be filled with grout. This was done to stabilize the rock, to prevent water from seeping past the dam through the canyon rock, and to limit "uplift"—upward pressure from water seeping under the dam. The workers were under severe time constraints due to the beginning of the concrete pour, and when they encountered hot springs or cavities too large to readily fill, they moved on without resolving the problem. A total of 58 of the 393 holes were incompletely filled.[56] After the dam was completed and the lake began to fill, large numbers of significant leaks into the dam caused the Bureau of Reclamation to look into the situation. It found that the work had been incompletely done, and was based on less than a full understanding of the canyon's geology. New holes were drilled from inspection galleries inside the dam into the surrounding bedrock.[57] It took nine years (1938–47) under relative secrecy to complete the supplemental grout curtain.[58]

Columns of Hoover Dam being filled with concrete, February 1934 (looking upstream from the Nevada rim)

The first concrete was poured into the dam on June 6, 1933, 18 months ahead of schedule.[59] Since concrete heats and contracts as it cures, the potential for uneven cooling and contraction of the concrete posed a serious problem. Bureau of Reclamation engineers calculated that if the dam was built in a single continuous pour, the concrete would take 125 years to cool, and the resulting stresses would cause the dam to crack and crumble. Instead, the ground where the dam would rise was marked with rectangles, and concrete blocks in columns were poured, some as large as 50 ft square (15 m) and 5 feet (1.5 m) high.[60] Each five-foot form contained a series of 1-inch (25 mm) steel pipes; cool riverwater would be poured through the pipes, followed by ice-cold water from a refrigeration plant. When an individual block had cured and had stopped contracting, the pipes were filled with grout. Grout was also used to fill the hairline spaces between columns, which were grooved to increase the strength of the joins.[61]

The concrete was delivered in huge steel buckets 7 feet high (2.1 m) and almost 7 feet in diameter; Crowe was awarded two patents for their design. These buckets, which weighed 20 short tons (18 t) when full, were filled at two massive concrete plants on the Nevada side, and were delivered to the site in special railcars. The buckets were then suspended from aerial cableways, which were used to deliver the bucket to a specific column. As the required grade of aggregate in the concrete differed depending on placement in the dam (from pea-sized gravel to 9-inch or 23 cm stones), it was vital that the bucket be maneuvered to the proper column. When the bottom of the bucket opened up, disgorging 8 cu yd (6.1 m3) of concrete, a team of men worked it throughout the form. Although there are myths that men were caught in the pour and are entombed in the dam to this day, each bucket only deepened the concrete in a form by an inch, and Six Companies engineers would not have permitted a flaw caused by the presence of a human body.[62]

A total of 3,250,000 cubic yards (2,480,000 m3) of concrete was used in the dam before concrete pouring ceased on May 29, 1935. In addition, 1,110,000 cu yd (850,000 m3) were used in the power plant and other works. More than 582 miles (937 km) of cooling pipes were placed within the concrete. Overall, there is enough concrete in the dam to pave a two-lane highway from San Francisco to New York.[47] Concrete cores were removed from the dam for testing in 1995; they showed that "Hoover Dam's concrete has continued to slowly gain strength" and the dam is composed of a "durable concrete having a compressive strength exceeding the range typically found in normal mass concrete".[63] Hoover Dam concrete is not subject to alkali–silica reaction (ASR) as the Hoover Dam builders happened to use nonreactive aggregate, unlike that at downstream Parker Dam, where ASR has caused measurable deterioration.[63]

The upstream face of Hoover Dam slowly disappears as Lake Mead fills, May 1935 (looking downstream from the Arizona rim)

With most work finished on the dam itself (the powerhouse remained uncompleted), a formal dedication ceremony was arranged for September 30, 1935, to coincide with a western tour being made by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The morning of the dedication, it was moved forward three hours from 2 p.m. Pacific time to 11 a.m.; this was done because Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes had reserved a radio slot for the President for 2 p.m. but officials did not realize until the day of the ceremony that the slot was for 2 p.m. Eastern Time.[64] Despite the change in the ceremony time, and temperatures of 102 °F (39 °C), 10,000 people were present for the President's speech, in which he avoided mentioning the name of former President Hoover,[65] who was not invited to the ceremony.[66] To mark the occasion, a three-cent stamp was issued by the United States Post Office Department—bearing the name "Boulder Dam", the official name of the dam between 1933 and 1947.[67] After the ceremony, Roosevelt made the first visit by any American president to Las Vegas.[65]

Most work had been completed by the dedication, and Six Companies negotiated with the government through late 1935, and early 1936, to settle all claims and arrange for the formal transfer of the dam to the Federal Government. The parties came to an agreement and on March 1, 1936, Secretary Ickes formally accepted the dam on behalf of the government. Six Companies was not required to complete work on one item, a concrete plug for one of the bypass tunnels, as the tunnel had to be used to take in irrigation water until the powerhouse went into operation.[68]

Oskar J. W. Hansen's memorial at the dam which reads in part "They died to make the desert bloom."[69]

There were 112 deaths associated with the construction of the dam.[70] The first was J. G. Tierney, a surveyor who drowned on December 20, 1922, while looking for an ideal spot for the dam.[70] The last death on the project's official fatality list occurred on December 20, 1935, when an "electrician's helper", Patrick Tierney, the son of J. G. Tierney, fell from an intake tower. Included in the fatality list are three workers, one in 1932 and two in 1933, who committed suicide onsite.[71][72][73] Ninety-six of the deaths occurred during construction at the site.[70] Of the 112 fatalities, 91 were Six Companies employees, three were BOR employees, and one was a visitor to the site, with the remainder employees of various contractors not part of Six Companies.[74]

Not included in the official number of fatalities were deaths that were recorded as pneumonia. Workers alleged that this diagnosis was a cover for death from carbon monoxide poisoning (brought on by the use of gasoline-fueled vehicles in the diversion tunnels), and a classification used by Six Companies to avoid paying compensation claims.[75] The site's diversion tunnels frequently reached 140 °F (60 °C), enveloped in thick plumes of vehicle exhaust gases.[76] A total of 42 workers were recorded as having died from pneumonia; none were listed as having died from carbon monoxide poisoning. No deaths of non-workers from pneumonia were recorded in Boulder City during the construction period.[75]

Hansen's bas-relief on the Nevada elevator

The initial plans for the facade of the dam, the power plant, the outlet tunnels and ornaments clashed with the modern look of an arch dam. The Bureau of Reclamation, more concerned with the dam's functionality, adorned it with a Gothic-inspired balustrade and eagle statues. This initial design was criticized by many as being too plain and unremarkable for a project of such immense scale, so Los Angeles-based architect Gordon B. Kaufmann, then the supervising architect to the Bureau of Reclamation, was brought in to redesign the exteriors.[77] Kaufmann greatly streamlined the design, and applied an elegant Art Deco style to the entire project. He designed sculptured turrets rising seamlessly from the dam face and clock faces on the intake towers set for the time in Nevada and Arizona — both states are in different time zones, but since Arizona does not observe Daylight Saving Time, the clocks display the same time for more than half the year.[78]

At Kaufmann's request, Denver artist Allen Tupper True[77] was hired to handle the design and decoration of the walls and floors of the new dam. True's design scheme incorporated motifs of the Navajo and Pueblo tribes of the region.[79] Although some initially were opposed to these designs, True was given the go-ahead and was officially appointed consulting artist.[80] With the assistance of the National Laboratory of Anthropology, True researched authentic decorative motifs from Indian sand paintings, textiles, baskets and ceramics.[81] The images and colors are based on Native American visions of rain, lightning, water, clouds, and local animals — lizards, serpents, birds — and on the Southwestern landscape of stepped mesas.[79] In these works, which are integrated into the walkways and interior halls of the dam, True also reflected on the machinery of the operation, making the symbolic patterns appear both ancient and modern.[82]

Tile floor designed by Allen Tupper True

With the agreement of Kaufmann and the engineers, True also devised an innovative color-coding for the pipes and machinery, which was implemented throughout all BOR projects.[83] True's consulting artist job lasted through 1942; it was extended so he could complete design work for the Parker, Shasta and Grand Coulee dams and power plants. True's work on the Hoover Dam was humorously referred to in a poem published in The New Yorker, part of which read, "lose the spark, and justify the dream; but also worthy of remark will be the color scheme".[84]

Complementing Kaufmann and True's work, the Norwegian-born, naturalized American sculptor Oskar J.W. Hansen designed many of the sculptures on and around the dam. His works include the monument of dedication plaza, a plaque to memorialize the workers killed and the bas-reliefs on the elevator towers. In his words, Hansen wanted his work to express "the immutable calm of intellectual resolution, and the enormous power of trained physical strength, equally enthroned in placid triumph of scientific accomplishment", because "[t]he building of Hoover Dam belongs to the sagas of the daring."[69] Hansen's dedication plaza, on the Nevada abutment, contains a sculpture of two winged figures flanking a flagpole.

Hoover Dam memorial star map floor, center area

Surrounding the base of the monument is a terrazzo floor embedded with a "star map". The map depicts the Northern Hemisphere sky at the moment of President Roosevelt's dedication of the dam. This is intended to help future astronomers, if necessary, calculate the exact date of dedication.[69][85] The 30-foot-high (9.1 m) bronze figures, dubbed "Winged Figures of the Republic", were each formed in a continuous pour. To put such large bronzes into place without marring the highly polished bronze surface, they were placed on ice and guided into position as the ice melted.[86] Hansen's bas-relief on the Nevada elevator tower depicts the benefits of the dam: flood control, navigation, irrigation, water storage, and power. The bas-relief on the Arizona elevator depicts, in his words, "the visages of those Indian tribes who have inhabited mountains and plains from ages distant."[69]

Hoover Dam releasing water from the jet-flow gates in 1998

Excavation for the powerhouse was carried out simultaneously with the excavation for the dam foundation and abutments. A U-shaped structure located at the downstream toe of the dam, its excavation was completed in late 1933 with the first concrete placed in November 1933. Filling of Lake Mead began February 1, 1935, even before the last of the concrete was poured that May.[87] The powerhouse was one of the projects uncompleted at the time of the formal dedication on September 30, 1935—a crew of 500 men remained to finish it and other structures.[88] To make the powerhouse roof bombproof, it was constructed of layers of concrete, rock, and steel with a total thickness of about 3.5 feet (1.1 m), topped with layers of sand and tar.[89]

In the latter half of 1936, water levels in Lake Mead were high enough to permit power generation, and the first three Allis Chalmers built Francis turbine-generators, all on the Nevada side, began operating. In March 1937, one more Nevada generator went online and the first Arizona generator by August. By September 1939, four more generators were operating, and the dam's power plant became the largest hydroelectricity facility in the world. The final generator was not placed in service until 1961, bringing the maximum generating capacity to 1,345 megawatts at the time.[87][90] Original plans called for 16 large generators, eight on each side of the river, but two smaller generators were installed instead of one large one on the Arizona side for a total of 17. The smaller generators were used to serve smaller communities at a time when the output of each generator was dedicated to a single municipality, before the dam's total power output was placed on the grid and made arbitrarily distributable.[2] The present contracts for the sale of electricity expire in 2017.[91]

Before water from Lake Mead reaches the turbines, it enters the intake towers and then four gradually narrowing penstocks which funnel the water down towards the powerhouse. The intakes provide a maximum hydraulic head (water pressure) of 590 ft (180 m) as the water reaches a speed of about 85 mph (140 km/h). The entire flow of the Colorado River passes through the turbines. The spillways and outlet works (jet-flow gates) are rarely used.[2] The jet-flow gates, located in concrete structures 180 feet (55 m) above the river, and also at the outlets of the inner diversion tunnels at river level, may be used to divert water around the dam in emergency or flood conditions, but have never done so, and in practice are only used to drain water from the penstocks for maintenance.[92] Following an uprating project from 1986 to 1993, the total gross power rating for the plant, including two 2.4 megawatt Pelton turbine-generators that power Hoover Dam's own operations is a maximum capacity of 2080 megawatts.[2] The annual generation of Hoover Dam varies. The maximum net generation was 10.348 TWh in 1984, and the minimum since 1940 was 2.648 TWh in 1956.[2] The average power generated was 4.2 TWh/year for 1947–2008.[2] In 2015, the dam generated 3.6 TWh.[93]

The amount of electricity generated by Hoover Dam has been decreasing along with the falling water level in Lake Mead due to the prolonged drought in the 2010s and high demand for the Colorado River's water. Lake Mead fell to a new record low elevation of 1,071.61 feet (326.63 m) on July 1, 2016 before beginning to rebound slowly.[94] Under its original design, the dam will no longer be able to generate power once the water level falls below 1,050 feet (320 m), which could occur as early as 2017. To lower the minimum power pool elevation from 1,050 to 950 feet (320 to 290 m), five wide-head turbines, designed to work efficiently with less flow, are being installed and will be fully online by 2017.[95] Due to the low water levels, by 2014 it was providing power only during periods of peak demand.[96]

Control of water was the primary concern in the building of the dam. Power generation has allowed the dam project to be self-sustaining: proceeds from the sale of power repaid the 50-year construction loan, and those revenues also finance the multimillion-dollar yearly maintenance budget. Power is generated in step with and only with the release of water in response to downstream water demands.[91]

Lake Mead and downstream releases from the dam also provide water for both municipal and irrigation uses. Water released from the Hoover Dam eventually reaches several canals. The Colorado River Aqueduct and Central Arizona Project branch off Lake Havasu while the All-American Canal is supplied by the Imperial Dam. In total, water from the Lake Mead serves 18 million people in Arizona, Nevada and California and supplies the irrigation of over 1,000,000 acres (400,000 ha) of land.[91][97]

Electricity from the dam's powerhouse was originally sold pursuant to a fifty-year contract, authorized by Congress in 1934, which ran from 1937 to 1987. In 1984, Congress passed a new statute which set power allocations from the dam from 1987 to 2017.[98] The powerhouse was run under the original authorization by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and Southern California Edison; in 1987, the Bureau of Reclamation assumed control.[99] In 2011, Congress enacted legislation extending the current contracts until 2067, after setting aside 5% of Hoover Dam's power for sale to Native American tribes, electric cooperatives, and other entities. The new arrangement will begin on October 1, 2017.[98] The Bureau of Reclamation reports that the energy generated under the contracts ending in 2017 is allocated as follows:[2]

Water enters the Arizona spillway (left) during the 1983 floods. Lake Mead water level was 1,225.6 ft (373.6 m)

The dam is protected against over-topping by two spillways. The spillway entrances are located behind each dam abutment, running roughly parallel to the canyon walls. The spillway entrance arrangement forms a classic side-flow weir with each spillway containing four 100-foot-long (30 m) and 16-foot-wide (4.9 m) steel-drum gates. Each gate weighs 5,000,000 pounds (2,300,000 kg) and can be operated manually or automatically. Gates are raised and lowered depending on water levels in the reservoir and flood conditions. The gates could not entirely prevent water from entering the spillways but could maintain an extra 16 ft (4.9 m) of lake level.[100] Water flowing over the spillways falls dramatically into 600-foot-long (180 m), 50-foot-wide (15 m) spillway tunnels before connecting to the outer diversion tunnels, and reentering the main river channel below the dam. This complex spillway entrance arrangement combined with the approximate 700-foot (210 m) elevation drop from the top of the reservoir to the river below was a difficult engineering problem and posed numerous design challenges. Each spillway's capacity of 200,000 cu ft/s (5,700 m3/s) was empirically verified in post-construction tests in 1941.[100]

The large spillway tunnels have only been used twice, for testing in 1941 and because of flooding in 1983. During both times, when inspecting the tunnels after the spillways were used, engineers found major damage to the concrete linings and underlying rock.[101] The 1941 damage was attributed to a slight misalignment of the tunnel invert (or base), which caused cavitation, a phenomenon in fast-flowing liquids in which vapor bubbles collapse with explosive force. In response to this finding, the tunnels were patched with special heavy-duty concrete and the surface of the concrete was polished mirror-smooth.[102] The spillways were modified in 1947 by adding flip buckets, which both slow the water and decrease the spillway's effective capacity, in an attempt to eliminate conditions thought to have contributed to the 1941 damage. The 1983 damage, also due to cavitation, led to the installation of aerators in the spillways.[101] Tests at Grand Coulee Dam showed that the technique worked, in principle.[102]

The bypass in front of the dam

There are two lanes for automobile traffic across the top of the dam, which formerly served as the Colorado River crossing for U.S. Route 93.[103] In the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, authorities expressed security concerns and the Hoover Dam Bypass project was expedited. Pending the completion of the bypass, restricted traffic was permitted over Hoover Dam. Some types of vehicles were inspected prior to crossing the dam while semi-trailer trucks, buses carrying luggage, and enclosed-box trucks over 40 ft (12 m) long were not allowed on the dam at all, and were diverted to U.S. Route 95 or Nevada State Routes 163/68.[104] The four-lane Hoover Dam Bypass opened on October 19, 2010.[105] It includes a composite steel and concrete arch bridge, the Mike O'Callaghan–Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge, 1,500 ft (460 m) downstream from the dam. With the opening of the bypass, through traffic is no longer allowed across Hoover Dam; dam visitors are allowed to use the existing roadway to approach from the Nevada side and cross to parking lots and other facilities on the Arizona side.[106]

Hoover Dam opened for tours in 1937 after its completion, but following Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, it was closed to the public when the United States entered World War II, during which only authorized traffic, in convoys, was permitted. After the war, it reopened September 2, 1945, and by 1953, annual attendance had risen to 448,081. The dam closed on November 25, 1963 and March 31, 1969, days of mourning in remembrance of Presidents Kennedy and Eisenhower. In 1995, a new visitors' center was built, and the following year, visits exceeded one million for the first time. The dam closed again to the public on September 11, 2001; modified tours were resumed in December and a new "Discovery Tour" was added the following year.[99] Today, nearly a million people per year take the tours of the dam offered by the Bureau of Reclamation.[107] Increased security concerns by the government have led to most of the interior structure being inaccessible to tourists. As a result, few of True's decorations can now be seen by visitors.[108]

View upstream from Hoover Dam, Sept. 2009. Water elevation on this date was 1093.77 ft.

The changes in water flow and use caused by Hoover Dam's construction and operation have had a large impact on the Colorado River Delta.[109] The construction of the dam has been implicated in causing the decline of this estuarine ecosystem.[109] For six years after the construction of the dam, while Lake Mead filled, virtually no water reached the mouth of the river.[110] The delta's estuary, which once had a freshwater-saltwater mixing zone stretching 40 miles (64 km) south of the river's mouth, was turned into an inverse estuary where the level of salinity was higher close to the river's mouth.[111]

The Colorado River had experienced natural flooding before the construction of the Hoover Dam. The dam eliminated the natural flooding, which threatened many species adapted to the flooding, including both plants and animals.[112] The construction of the dam devastated the populations of native fish in the river downstream from the dam.[113] Four species of fish native to the Colorado River, the Bonytail chub, Colorado pikeminnow, Humpback chub, and Razorback sucker, are listed as endangered.[114][115]

Los Angeles Times political cartoon commenting on the attempts of Ickes to keep 'Hoover' off of the dam.

During the years of lobbying leading up to the passage of legislation authorizing the dam in 1928, the press generally referred to the dam as "Boulder Dam" or as "Boulder Canyon Dam", even though the proposed site had shifted to Black Canyon.[15] The Boulder Canyon Project Act of 1928 (BCPA) never mentioned a proposed name or title for the dam. The BCPA merely allows the government to "construct, operate, and maintain a dam and incidental works in the main stream of the Colorado River at Black Canyon or Boulder Canyon".[116]

When Secretary Wilbur spoke at the ceremony starting the building of the railway between Las Vegas and the dam site on September 17, 1930, he named the dam "Hoover Dam", citing a tradition of naming dams after Presidents, though none had been so honored during their terms of office. Wilbur justified his choice on the ground that Hoover was "the great engineer whose vision and persistence ... has done so much to make [the dam] possible".[117] One writer complained in response that "the Great Engineer had quickly drained, ditched, and dammed the country."[117]

After Hoover's election defeat in 1932 and the accession of the Roosevelt administration, Secretary Ickes ordered on May 13, 1933, that the dam be referred to as "Boulder Dam". Ickes stated that Wilbur had been imprudent in naming the dam after a sitting president, that Congress had never ratified his choice, and that it had long been referred to as Boulder Dam.[117] Unknown to the general public, Attorney General Homer Cummings informed Ickes that Congress had indeed used the name "Hoover Dam" in five different bills appropriating money for construction of the dam.[118] The official status this conferred to the name "Hoover Dam" had been noted on the floor of the House of Representatives by Congressman Edward T. Taylor of Colorado on December 12, 1930,[119] but was likewise ignored by Ickes.

When Ickes spoke at the dedication ceremony on September 30, 1935, he was determined, as he recorded in his diary, "to try to nail down for good and all the name Boulder Dam."[67] At one point in the speech, he spoke the words "Boulder Dam" five times within thirty seconds.[120] Further, he suggested that if the dam were to be named after any one person, it should be for California Senator Hiram Johnson, a lead sponsor of the authorizing legislation.[67] Roosevelt also referred to the dam as Boulder Dam,[88] and the Republican-leaning Los Angeles Times, which at the time of Ickes' name change had run an editorial cartoon showing Ickes ineffectively chipping away at an enormous sign "HOOVER DAM," reran it showing Roosevelt reinforcing Ickes, but having no greater success.[121]

In the following years, the name "Boulder Dam" failed to fully take hold, with many Americans using both names interchangeably and mapmakers divided as to which name should be printed. Memories of the Great Depression faded, and Hoover to some extent rehabilitated himself through good works during and after World War II. In 1947, a bill passed both Houses of Congress unanimously restoring the name "Hoover Dam." Ickes, who was by then a private citizen, opposed the change, stating, "I didn't know Hoover was that small a man to take credit for something he had nothing to do with."[122]

Hoover Dam was recognized as a National Civil Engineering Landmark in 1984.[123] It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1981, and was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1985, cited for its engineering innovations.[4]

Hoover Dam 2011 panoramic view from the Arizona side showing the penstock towers, the Nevada-side spillway entrance and the Mike O'Callaghan – Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge, also known as the Hoover Dam Bypass

Other sources

TEXAS

Sienna Plantation concrete supply inc

How to Find a Good Patio Contractor

Have you decided you want a flagstone, limestone or concrete patio for your TEXAS home. Wondering how to get it done and who you should use? Well, I’m going to tell you how. I’m going to give you a step by step process stating the 3 red flags that signal a bad or uneducated [tag] contractor. These 3 things will ensure you get it done the right way, by the right small concrete contractors contractor in TEXAS .

Steps To Finding The Right Concrete Contractor in TEXAS

First step, first things first. Every Stone Installation Needs A Concrete Footing which might also be called a concrete foundation . This is not opinion but fact. If you want it done right and want it to withstand the test of time, this is the way it’s done, no exceptions. A red flag should go up when any contractor is offering bypassing a concrete foundation as a cost saving option. Unfortunately 85% of the small concrete contractors contractors out there will tell you they can lay the stone right on top of compacted granite or base material. This type of contractor is exactly who you want to avoid. While what they are recommending to you gives the appearance of a patio, it won’t withstand the climate, erosion and soil movement beneath the patio in TEXAS .

BEWARE OF CONCRETE CONTRACTOR SCAMS

decorative concrete business

You might get a few crackless years at best, until it begins to fall apart. This method is the most recommended scam or shortcut of trying to lower pricing and still get the job. Notice the price came down because the concrete footing was removed from the job cost. This option of ” no concrete necessary” is most often offered to those with strict financial limitations. The contractors offering this solution don’t care about your patio or home, they just want your money.With no concrete foundation you get a type of patio, but it’s really just a veneer laid on the ground.

How much concrete do i need?

A concrete patio or sidewalk slab or footing should be a minimum of 4 inches thick. This is sometimes reduced to around 3 1/2 inches due to preexisting structural limitations for small concrete contractors in TEXAS . If you encounter space limitations, you really do need a good masonry contractor to resolve the issues with other options. this leads us to our next step.

concrete slab foundation

The 2nd step is hire a knowledgeable masonry contractor in TEXAS . Do a little research before you start getting pricing. Most good masonry contractors will be able to talk concrete chemistry and technology with you. Yes, I said technology. In the last 10 years there have been some really cool advances in concrete additives and mixes. These advances have provided solutions for the problems and limitations of old. A true patio or masonry professional will be able to talk shop with you, it’s his livelihood. A contractor who can’t do this or doesn’t seem comfortable is more than likely a novice at best. This should be the other red flag that goes up. Basically, Concrete slabs and mortar are like a cake mix. Correctly mixing the ingredients and correctly letting the slab or masonry product cure, are the factors that determine a good solid installation. Again, Talk with your contractor and Make sure he’s knowledgeable about the chemistry, additives and curing process of concrete & masonry. If he is this will ensure the likelihood of a great patio. 3rd step and last but definitely not least, Check references, check reviews and ask to see work they’ve done. Really check this stuff out and try to look at at least 1 job they have done. Ask point blank if the previous client is related to the contractor. Any resistance or confusion in this process would be red flag number

pouring concrete driveway

3.So, in order from 1 to 3. All masonry installations need a concrete footing. Make sure your patio contractor is knowledgeable about masonry chemistry, additives and enhancing solutions. Check references, reviews and stay away from the dirt cheap deals of a lifetime from any concrete contractor in TEXAS .If you get even 1 red flag, get another contractor. There are enough guys out there that do know what they’re doing.

Don't Hire a Concrete Contractor Before You Read This!

decorative concrete business

If you have a limited amount of budget and at the same time, you also want to renovate and remodel your home, then you can try out these cheap ideas of remodeling your home. It is natural to upgrade your house if you have been living in it for years and years. Though upgrading comes out to be quite expensive, you can go for the cheaper ideas. Avoid having new kitchen cabinets and countertops, new bath vanities, expensive hardwood floors, all of them will cost you thousands of dollars. Try out these cheap ways that can help you to remodel your home of your set budget line:

Tips for Home renovations Queens

Make use of Peel-and-Stick Contact kind of Paper along with Stainless Steel Finishing on your Appliances

Application of peel and stick contact paper along with the finishing of stainless steel, no one will ever tell the real difference that whether you have got the new items or renovated the older one. This real deal will only and just cost you a fraction of a price.
Do Change your handles, doorknobs as well as hinges

These are one of the inexpensive and cheapest finishing touches. Give a finishing touch to your handles, doorknobs, hinges. This kind of upgrading will not put up a huge difference in your budget. Installation of these handles, doorknobs are also quick and easy to do.

Changing the theme of your lampshades

It is one of the small details that can bring a significant change in the look of your home. Changing the theme of your lampshades will make your home to look more cohesive one.

Installation of new curtains

Your home can be upgraded in a cheaper way with the installation of new curtains and new blinds on your windows. Avoid getting one-inch vinyl blinds; they are expensive. Instead, you can have Two-inch wood blinds. These blinds can give the more aesthetic touch to your home. These woods blinds are not easily to destroy as well.

Rearranging your furniture

Rearrangement of your furniture does not mean that you have to buy new pieces and items of furniture. You only have to reorganize your furniture pieces. Create new shapes of your living space and reorganize the flow of these items.

Changing your wallpaper/ repainting your walls

You should repaint your walls or you can change their wallpaper, both options are feasible. A surprising change in the look of your home the minute you will paint or change wallpaper of them. You can have a matte finish as well if you already had a glossy finishing before.

Hanging of more mirrors

By hanging more mirrors in your home, it is one of the frugal alternatives to renovating your home. These mirrors will let your home to shine and glow more. It is better to hang two mirrors and that too in the same room, place them on the opposite walls and you will see that your room will look bigger in size.

Buying a bed set for your room/ buying new set of pillows covers

What you can do, start sewing out old pieces of fabric to give them a pillow cover look, you can start knitting a blanket as well. If you cannot find some old pieces of fabric, then hunt into yard sales. There you will find cheaper fabric for your bed sets and pillow covers.

Placing plants in outdoor and indoor areas of your home

Pot your plants in some cheap plastic jars and containers and place them in outdoor and indoor areas of your home. If you have some extra budget then instead of buying plastic jars, you can even get ceramic pots for your plants.
So are you ready to renovate your home? More tips for Home renovations Queens are coming up!

Ready Mix Concrete Pumping

pouring concrete driveway "Boulder Dam" redirects here. For other uses, see Boulder Dam (disambiguation).

Hoover Dam, originally known as Boulder Dam from 1933 to 1947, when it was officially renamed Hoover Dam by a joint resolution of Congress, is a concrete arch-gravity dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, on the border between the U.S. states of Nevada and Arizona. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936 during the Great Depression and was dedicated on September 30, 1935, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Its construction was the result of a massive effort involving thousands of workers, and cost over one hundred lives. The dam was named after President Herbert Hoover.

Since about 1900, the Black Canyon and nearby Boulder Canyon had been investigated for their potential to support a dam that would control floods, provide irrigation water and produce hydroelectric power. In 1928, Congress authorized the project. The winning bid to build the dam was submitted by a consortium called Six Companies, Inc., which began construction on the dam in early 1931. Such a large concrete structure had never been built before, and some of the techniques were unproven. The torrid summer weather and lack of facilities near the site also presented difficulties. Nevertheless, Six Companies turned over the dam to the federal government on March 1, 1936, more than two years ahead of schedule.

Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the United States by volume (when it is full).[5] The dam is located near Boulder City, Nevada, a municipality originally constructed for workers on the construction project, about 30 mi (48 km) southeast of Las Vegas, Nevada. The dam's generators provide power for public and private utilities in Nevada, Arizona, and California. Hoover Dam is a major tourist attraction; nearly a million people tour the dam each year. The heavily traveled U.S. Route 93 (US 93) ran along the dam's crest until October 2010, when the Hoover Dam Bypass opened.

As the United States developed the Southwest, the Colorado River was seen as a potential source of irrigation water. An initial attempt at diverting the river for irrigation purposes occurred in the late 1890s, when land speculator William Beatty built the Alamo Canal just north of the Mexican border; the canal dipped into Mexico before running to a desolate area Beatty named the Imperial Valley.[6] Though water from the Imperial Canal allowed for the widespread settlement of the valley, the canal proved expensive to maintain. After a catastrophic breach that caused the Colorado River to fill the Salton Sea,[7] the Southern Pacific Railroad spent $3 million in 1906–07 to stabilize the waterway, an amount it hoped vainly would be reimbursed by the Federal Government. Even after the waterway was stabilized, it proved unsatisfactory because of constant disputes with landowners on the Mexican side of the border.[8]

River view of the future site of Hoover Dam, circa 1904

As the technology of electric power transmission improved, the Lower Colorado was considered for its hydroelectric-power potential. In 1902, the Edison Electric Company of Los Angeles surveyed the river in the hope of building a 40-foot (12 m) rock dam which could generate 10,000 horsepower (7,500 kW). However, at the time, the limit of transmission of electric power was 80 miles (130 km), and there were few customers (mostly mines) within that limit. Edison allowed land options it held on the river to lapse—including an option for what became the site of Hoover Dam.[9]

In the following years, the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR), known as the Reclamation Service at the time, also considered the Lower Colorado as the site for a dam. Service chief Arthur Powell Davis proposed using dynamite to collapse the walls of Boulder Canyon,[10] 20 miles (32 km) north of the eventual dam site, into the river.[11] The river would carry off the smaller pieces of debris, and a dam would be built incorporating the remaining rubble. In 1922, after considering it for several years, the Reclamation Service finally rejected the proposal, citing doubts about the unproven technique and questions as to whether it would in fact save money.[10]

Sketch of proposed Boulder Canyon dam site and reservoir, circa 1921

In 1922, the Reclamation Service presented a report calling for the development of a dam on the Colorado River for flood control and electric power generation. The report was principally authored by Davis, and was called the Fall-Davis report after Interior Secretary Albert Fall. The Fall-Davis report cited use of the Colorado River as a federal concern, because the river's basin covered several states, and the river eventually entered Mexico.[12] Though the Fall-Davis report called for a dam "at or near Boulder Canyon", the Reclamation Service (which was renamed the Bureau of Reclamation the following year) found that canyon unsuitable.[13] One potential site at Boulder Canyon was bisected by a geologic fault; two others were so narrow there was no space for a construction camp at the bottom of the canyon[13] or for a spillway. The Service investigated Black Canyon and found it ideal; a railway could be laid from the railhead in Las Vegas to the top of the dam site.[14] Despite the site change, the dam project was referred to as the "Boulder Canyon Project".[15]

With little guidance on water allocation from the Supreme Court, proponents of the dam feared endless litigation. A Colorado attorney proposed that the seven states which fell within the river's basin (California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Colorado and Wyoming) form an interstate compact, with the approval of Congress. Such compacts were authorized by Article I of the United States Constitution but had never been concluded among more than two states. In 1922, representatives of seven states met with then-Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover.[16] Initial talks produced no result, but when the Supreme Court handed down the Wyoming v. Colorado decision undermining the claims of the upstream states, they became anxious to reach an agreement. The resulting Colorado River Compact was signed on November 24, 1922.[17]

Legislation to authorize the dam was introduced repeatedly by Representative Phil Swing (R-Calif.) and Senator Hiram Johnson (R-Calif.), but representatives from other parts of the country considered the project as hugely expensive and one that would mostly benefit California. The 1927 Mississippi flood made Midwestern and Southern congressmen and senators more sympathetic toward the dam project. On March 12, 1928, the failure of the St. Francis Dam, constructed by the city of Los Angeles, caused a disastrous flood that killed up to 600 people. As that dam was a curved-gravity type,[18] similar in design to the arch-gravity as was proposed for the Black Canyon dam, opponents claimed that the Black Canyon dam's safety could not be guaranteed. Congress authorized a board of engineers to review plans for the proposed dam. The Colorado River Board found the project feasible, but warned that should the dam fail, every downstream Colorado River community would be destroyed, and that the river might change course and empty into the Salton Sea. The Board cautioned: "To avoid such possibilities, the proposed dam should be constructed on conservative if not ultra-conservative lines."[19]

On December 21, 1928 President Coolidge signed the bill authorizing the dam.[20] The Boulder Canyon Project Act appropriated $165 million for the Hoover Dam along with the downstream Imperial Dam and All-American Canal, a replacement for Beatty's canal entirely on the U.S. side of the border.[21] It also permitted the compact to go into effect when at least six of the seven states approved it. This occurred on March 6, 1929 with Utah's ratification; Arizona did not approve it until 1944.[22]

Hoover Dam architectural plans

Even before Congress approved the Boulder Canyon Project, the Bureau of Reclamation was considering what kind of dam should be used. Officials eventually decided on a massive concrete arch-gravity dam, the design of which was overseen by the Bureau's chief design engineer John L. Savage. The monolithic dam would be thick at the bottom and thin near the top, and would present a convex face towards the water above the dam. The curving arch of the dam would transmit the water's force into the abutments, in this case the rock walls of the canyon. The wedge-shaped dam would be 660 ft (200 m) thick at the bottom, narrowing to 45 ft (14 m) at the top, leaving room for a highway connecting Nevada and Arizona.[23]

On January 10, 1931, the Bureau made the bid documents available to interested parties, at five dollars a copy. The government was to provide the materials; but the contractor was to prepare the site and build the dam. The dam was described in minute detail, covering 100 pages of text and 76 drawings. A $2 million bid bond was to accompany each bid; the winner would have to post a $5 million performance bond. The contractor had seven years to build the dam, or penalties would ensue.[24]

The Wattis Brothers, heads of the Utah Construction Company, were interested in bidding on the project, but lacked the money for the performance bond. They lacked sufficient resources even in combination with their longtime partners, Morrison-Knudsen, which employed the nation's leading dam builder, Frank Crowe. They formed a joint venture to bid for the project with Pacific Bridge Company of Portland, Oregon; Henry J. Kaiser & W. A. Bechtel Company of San Francisco; MacDonald & Kahn Ltd. of Los Angeles; and the J.F. Shea Company of Portland, Oregon.[25] The joint venture was called Six Companies, Inc. as Bechtel and Kaiser were considered one company for purposes of 6 in the name. The name was descriptive and was an inside joke among the San Franciscans in the bid, where "Six Companies" was also a Chinese benevolent association in the city.[26] There were three valid bids, and Six Companies' bid of $48,890,955 was the lowest, within $24,000 of the confidential government estimate of what the dam would cost to build, and five million dollars less than the next-lowest bid.[27]

The city of Las Vegas had lobbied hard to be the headquarters for the dam construction, closing its many speakeasies when the decision maker, Secretary of the Interior Ray Wilbur came to town. Instead, Wilbur announced in early 1930 that a model city was to be built in the desert near the dam site. This town became known as Boulder City, Nevada. Construction of a rail line joining Las Vegas and the dam site began in September 1930.[28]

Workers on a "Jumbo Rig"; used for drilling Hoover Dam's tunnels "Apache Indians employed as high-scalers on the construction of Hoover Dam." – NARA

Soon after the dam was authorized, increasing numbers of unemployed people converged on southern Nevada. Las Vegas, then a small city of some 5,000, saw between 10,000 and 20,000 unemployed descend on it.[29] A government camp was established for surveyors and other personnel near the dam site; this soon became surrounded by a squatters' camp. Known as McKeeversville, the camp was home to men hoping for work on the project, together with their families.[30] Another camp, on the flats along the Colorado River, was officially called Williamsville, but was known to its inhabitants as "Ragtown".[31] When construction began, Six Companies hired large numbers of workers, with more than 3,000 on the payroll by 1932[32] and with employment peaking at 5,251 in July 1934.[33] "Mongolian" (Chinese) labor was prevented by the construction contract,[33] while the number of blacks employed by Six Companies never exceeded thirty, mostly lowest-pay-scale laborers in a segregated crew, who were issued separate water buckets.[34]

As part of the contract, Six Companies, Inc. was to build Boulder City to house the workers. The original timetable called for Boulder City to be built before the dam project began, but President Hoover ordered work on the dam to begin in March 1931 rather than in October.[35] The company built bunkhouses, attached to the canyon wall, to house 480 single men at what became known as River Camp. Workers with families were left to provide their own accommodations until Boulder City could be completed,[36] and many lived in Ragtown.[37] The site of Hoover Dam endures extremely hot weather, and the summer of 1931 was especially torrid, with the daytime high averaging 119.9 °F (48.8 °C).[38] Sixteen workers and other riverbank residents died of heat prostration between June 25 and July 26, 1931.[39]

General Superintendent Frank Crowe (right) with Bureau of Reclamation engineer Walker Young in 1935

The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or "Wobblies"), though much-reduced from their heyday as militant labor organizers in the early years of the century, hoped to unionize the Six Companies workers by capitalizing on their discontent. They sent eleven organizers,[40] several of whom were arrested by Las Vegas police.[41] On August 7, 1931, the company cut wages for all tunnel workers. Although the workers sent away the organizers, not wanting to be associated with the "Wobblies", they formed a committee to represent them with the company. The committee drew up a list of demands that evening and presented them to Crowe the following morning. He was noncommittal. The workers hoped that Crowe, the general superintendent of the job, would be sympathetic; instead he gave a scathing interview to a newspaper, describing the workers as "malcontents".[42]

On the morning of the 9th, Crowe met with the committee and told them that management refused their demands, was stopping all work, and was laying off the entire work force, except for a few office workers and carpenters. The workers were given until 5 p.m. to vacate the premises. Concerned that a violent confrontation was imminent, most workers took their paychecks and left for Las Vegas to await developments.[43] Two days later, the remainder were talked into leaving by law enforcement. On August 13, the company began hiring workers again, and two days later, the strike was called off.[44] While the workers received none of their demands, the company guaranteed there would be no further reductions in wages. Living conditions began to improve as the first residents moved into Boulder City in late 1931.[45]

A second labor action took place in July 1935, as construction on the dam wound down. When a Six Companies manager altered working times to force workers to take lunch on their own time, workers responded with a strike. Emboldened by Crowe's reversal of the lunch decree, workers raised their demands to include a $1-per-day raise. The company agreed to ask the Federal government to supplement the pay, but no money was forthcoming from Washington. The strike ended.[46]

Overview of dam mechanisms; diversion tunnels shown

Before the dam could be built, the Colorado River needed to be diverted away from the construction site. To accomplish this, four diversion tunnels were driven through the canyon walls, two on the Nevada side and two on the Arizona side. These tunnels were 56 ft (17 m) in diameter.[47] Their combined length was nearly 16,000 ft, or more than 3 miles (5 km).[48] The contract required these tunnels to be completed by October 1, 1933, with a $3,000-per-day fine to be assessed for any delay. To meet the deadline, Six Companies had to complete work by early 1933, since only in late fall and winter was the water level in the river low enough to safely divert.[49]

Tunneling began at the lower portals of the Nevada tunnels in May 1931. Shortly afterward, work began on two similar tunnels in the Arizona canyon wall. In March 1932, work began on lining the tunnels with concrete. First the base, or invert, was poured. Gantry cranes, running on rails through the entire length of each tunnel were used to place the concrete. The sidewalls were poured next. Movable sections of steel forms were used for the sidewalls. Finally, using pneumatic guns, the overheads were filled in. The concrete lining is 3 feet (1 m) thick, reducing the finished tunnel diameter to 50 ft (15 m).[48] The river was diverted into the two Arizona tunnels on November 13, 1932; the Nevada tunnels were kept in reserve for high water. This was done by exploding a temporary cofferdam protecting the Arizona tunnels while at the same time dumping rubble into the river until its natural course was blocked.[50]

Following the completion of the dam, the entrances to the two outer diversion tunnels were sealed at the opening and halfway through the tunnels with large concrete plugs. The downstream halves of the tunnels following the inner plugs are now the main bodies of the spillway tunnels.[48] The inner diversion tunnels were plugged at approximately one-third of their length, beyond which they now carry steel pipes connecting the intake towers to the power plant and outlet works.[47] The inner tunnels' outlets are equipped with gates that can be closed to drain the tunnels for maintenance.[47]

To protect the construction site from the Colorado River and to facilitate the river's diversion, two cofferdams were constructed. Work on the upper cofferdam began in September 1932, even though the river had not yet been diverted.[51] The cofferdams were designed to protect against the possibility of the river flooding a site at which two thousand men might be at work, and their specifications were covered in the bid documents in nearly as much detail as the dam itself. The upper cofferdam was 96 ft (29 m) high, and 750 feet (230 m) thick at its base, thicker than the dam itself. It contained 650,000 cubic yards (500,000 m3) of material.[52]

Looking down at "high scalers" above the Colorado River

When the cofferdams were in place and the construction site was drained of water, excavation for the dam foundation began. For the dam to rest on solid rock, it was necessary to remove accumulated erosion soils and other loose materials in the riverbed until sound bedrock was reached. Work on the foundation excavations was completed in June 1933. During this excavation, approximately 1,500,000 cu yd (1,100,000 m3) of material was removed. Since the dam was an arch-gravity type, the side-walls of the canyon would bear the force of the impounded lake. Therefore, the side-walls were excavated too, to reach virgin rock as weathered rock might provide pathways for water seepage.[51]

The men who removed this rock were called "high scalers". While suspended from the top of the canyon with ropes, the high-scalers climbed down the canyon walls and removed the loose rock with jackhammers and dynamite. Falling objects were the most common cause of death on the dam site; the high scalers' work thus helped ensure worker safety.[53] One high scaler was able to save life in a more direct manner: when a government inspector lost his grip on a safety line and began tumbling down a slope towards almost certain death, a high scaler was able to intercept him and pull him into the air. The construction site had, even then, become a magnet for tourists; the high scalers were prime attractions and showed off for the watchers. The high scalers received considerable media attention, with one worker dubbed the "Human Pendulum" for swinging co-workers (and, at other times, cases of dynamite) across the canyon.[54] To protect themselves against falling objects, some high scalers took cloth hats and dipped them in tar, allowing them to harden. When workers wearing such headgear were struck hard enough to inflict broken jaws, they sustained no skull damage, Six Companies ordered thousands of what initially were called "hard boiled hats" (later "hard hats") and strongly encouraged their use.[55]

The cleared, underlying rock foundation of the dam site was reinforced with grout, called a grout curtain. Holes were driven into the walls and base of the canyon, as deep as 150 feet (46 m) into the rock, and any cavities encountered were to be filled with grout. This was done to stabilize the rock, to prevent water from seeping past the dam through the canyon rock, and to limit "uplift"—upward pressure from water seeping under the dam. The workers were under severe time constraints due to the beginning of the concrete pour, and when they encountered hot springs or cavities too large to readily fill, they moved on without resolving the problem. A total of 58 of the 393 holes were incompletely filled.[56] After the dam was completed and the lake began to fill, large numbers of significant leaks into the dam caused the Bureau of Reclamation to look into the situation. It found that the work had been incompletely done, and was based on less than a full understanding of the canyon's geology. New holes were drilled from inspection galleries inside the dam into the surrounding bedrock.[57] It took nine years (1938–47) under relative secrecy to complete the supplemental grout curtain.[58]

Columns of Hoover Dam being filled with concrete, February 1934 (looking upstream from the Nevada rim)

The first concrete was poured into the dam on June 6, 1933, 18 months ahead of schedule.[59] Since concrete heats and contracts as it cures, the potential for uneven cooling and contraction of the concrete posed a serious problem. Bureau of Reclamation engineers calculated that if the dam was built in a single continuous pour, the concrete would take 125 years to cool, and the resulting stresses would cause the dam to crack and crumble. Instead, the ground where the dam would rise was marked with rectangles, and concrete blocks in columns were poured, some as large as 50 ft square (15 m) and 5 feet (1.5 m) high.[60] Each five-foot form contained a series of 1-inch (25 mm) steel pipes; cool riverwater would be poured through the pipes, followed by ice-cold water from a refrigeration plant. When an individual block had cured and had stopped contracting, the pipes were filled with grout. Grout was also used to fill the hairline spaces between columns, which were grooved to increase the strength of the joins.[61]

The concrete was delivered in huge steel buckets 7 feet high (2.1 m) and almost 7 feet in diameter; Crowe was awarded two patents for their design. These buckets, which weighed 20 short tons (18 t) when full, were filled at two massive concrete plants on the Nevada side, and were delivered to the site in special railcars. The buckets were then suspended from aerial cableways, which were used to deliver the bucket to a specific column. As the required grade of aggregate in the concrete differed depending on placement in the dam (from pea-sized gravel to 9-inch or 23 cm stones), it was vital that the bucket be maneuvered to the proper column. When the bottom of the bucket opened up, disgorging 8 cu yd (6.1 m3) of concrete, a team of men worked it throughout the form. Although there are myths that men were caught in the pour and are entombed in the dam to this day, each bucket only deepened the concrete in a form by an inch, and Six Companies engineers would not have permitted a flaw caused by the presence of a human body.[62]

A total of 3,250,000 cubic yards (2,480,000 m3) of concrete was used in the dam before concrete pouring ceased on May 29, 1935. In addition, 1,110,000 cu yd (850,000 m3) were used in the power plant and other works. More than 582 miles (937 km) of cooling pipes were placed within the concrete. Overall, there is enough concrete in the dam to pave a two-lane highway from San Francisco to New York.[47] Concrete cores were removed from the dam for testing in 1995; they showed that "Hoover Dam's concrete has continued to slowly gain strength" and the dam is composed of a "durable concrete having a compressive strength exceeding the range typically found in normal mass concrete".[63] Hoover Dam concrete is not subject to alkali–silica reaction (ASR) as the Hoover Dam builders happened to use nonreactive aggregate, unlike that at downstream Parker Dam, where ASR has caused measurable deterioration.[63]

The upstream face of Hoover Dam slowly disappears as Lake Mead fills, May 1935 (looking downstream from the Arizona rim)

With most work finished on the dam itself (the powerhouse remained uncompleted), a formal dedication ceremony was arranged for September 30, 1935, to coincide with a western tour being made by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The morning of the dedication, it was moved forward three hours from 2 p.m. Pacific time to 11 a.m.; this was done because Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes had reserved a radio slot for the President for 2 p.m. but officials did not realize until the day of the ceremony that the slot was for 2 p.m. Eastern Time.[64] Despite the change in the ceremony time, and temperatures of 102 °F (39 °C), 10,000 people were present for the President's speech, in which he avoided mentioning the name of former President Hoover,[65] who was not invited to the ceremony.[66] To mark the occasion, a three-cent stamp was issued by the United States Post Office Department—bearing the name "Boulder Dam", the official name of the dam between 1933 and 1947.[67] After the ceremony, Roosevelt made the first visit by any American president to Las Vegas.[65]

Most work had been completed by the dedication, and Six Companies negotiated with the government through late 1935, and early 1936, to settle all claims and arrange for the formal transfer of the dam to the Federal Government. The parties came to an agreement and on March 1, 1936, Secretary Ickes formally accepted the dam on behalf of the government. Six Companies was not required to complete work on one item, a concrete plug for one of the bypass tunnels, as the tunnel had to be used to take in irrigation water until the powerhouse went into operation.[68]

Oskar J. W. Hansen's memorial at the dam which reads in part "They died to make the desert bloom."[69]

There were 112 deaths associated with the construction of the dam.[70] The first was J. G. Tierney, a surveyor who drowned on December 20, 1922, while looking for an ideal spot for the dam.[70] The last death on the project's official fatality list occurred on December 20, 1935, when an "electrician's helper", Patrick Tierney, the son of J. G. Tierney, fell from an intake tower. Included in the fatality list are three workers, one in 1932 and two in 1933, who committed suicide onsite.[71][72][73] Ninety-six of the deaths occurred during construction at the site.[70] Of the 112 fatalities, 91 were Six Companies employees, three were BOR employees, and one was a visitor to the site, with the remainder employees of various contractors not part of Six Companies.[74]

Not included in the official number of fatalities were deaths that were recorded as pneumonia. Workers alleged that this diagnosis was a cover for death from carbon monoxide poisoning (brought on by the use of gasoline-fueled vehicles in the diversion tunnels), and a classification used by Six Companies to avoid paying compensation claims.[75] The site's diversion tunnels frequently reached 140 °F (60 °C), enveloped in thick plumes of vehicle exhaust gases.[76] A total of 42 workers were recorded as having died from pneumonia; none were listed as having died from carbon monoxide poisoning. No deaths of non-workers from pneumonia were recorded in Boulder City during the construction period.[75]

Hansen's bas-relief on the Nevada elevator

The initial plans for the facade of the dam, the power plant, the outlet tunnels and ornaments clashed with the modern look of an arch dam. The Bureau of Reclamation, more concerned with the dam's functionality, adorned it with a Gothic-inspired balustrade and eagle statues. This initial design was criticized by many as being too plain and unremarkable for a project of such immense scale, so Los Angeles-based architect Gordon B. Kaufmann, then the supervising architect to the Bureau of Reclamation, was brought in to redesign the exteriors.[77] Kaufmann greatly streamlined the design, and applied an elegant Art Deco style to the entire project. He designed sculptured turrets rising seamlessly from the dam face and clock faces on the intake towers set for the time in Nevada and Arizona — both states are in different time zones, but since Arizona does not observe Daylight Saving Time, the clocks display the same time for more than half the year.[78]

At Kaufmann's request, Denver artist Allen Tupper True[77] was hired to handle the design and decoration of the walls and floors of the new dam. True's design scheme incorporated motifs of the Navajo and Pueblo tribes of the region.[79] Although some initially were opposed to these designs, True was given the go-ahead and was officially appointed consulting artist.[80] With the assistance of the National Laboratory of Anthropology, True researched authentic decorative motifs from Indian sand paintings, textiles, baskets and ceramics.[81] The images and colors are based on Native American visions of rain, lightning, water, clouds, and local animals — lizards, serpents, birds — and on the Southwestern landscape of stepped mesas.[79] In these works, which are integrated into the walkways and interior halls of the dam, True also reflected on the machinery of the operation, making the symbolic patterns appear both ancient and modern.[82]

Tile floor designed by Allen Tupper True

With the agreement of Kaufmann and the engineers, True also devised an innovative color-coding for the pipes and machinery, which was implemented throughout all BOR projects.[83] True's consulting artist job lasted through 1942; it was extended so he could complete design work for the Parker, Shasta and Grand Coulee dams and power plants. True's work on the Hoover Dam was humorously referred to in a poem published in The New Yorker, part of which read, "lose the spark, and justify the dream; but also worthy of remark will be the color scheme".[84]

Complementing Kaufmann and True's work, the Norwegian-born, naturalized American sculptor Oskar J.W. Hansen designed many of the sculptures on and around the dam. His works include the monument of dedication plaza, a plaque to memorialize the workers killed and the bas-reliefs on the elevator towers. In his words, Hansen wanted his work to express "the immutable calm of intellectual resolution, and the enormous power of trained physical strength, equally enthroned in placid triumph of scientific accomplishment", because "[t]he building of Hoover Dam belongs to the sagas of the daring."[69] Hansen's dedication plaza, on the Nevada abutment, contains a sculpture of two winged figures flanking a flagpole.

Hoover Dam memorial star map floor, center area

Surrounding the base of the monument is a terrazzo floor embedded with a "star map". The map depicts the Northern Hemisphere sky at the moment of President Roosevelt's dedication of the dam. This is intended to help future astronomers, if necessary, calculate the exact date of dedication.[69][85] The 30-foot-high (9.1 m) bronze figures, dubbed "Winged Figures of the Republic", were each formed in a continuous pour. To put such large bronzes into place without marring the highly polished bronze surface, they were placed on ice and guided into position as the ice melted.[86] Hansen's bas-relief on the Nevada elevator tower depicts the benefits of the dam: flood control, navigation, irrigation, water storage, and power. The bas-relief on the Arizona elevator depicts, in his words, "the visages of those Indian tribes who have inhabited mountains and plains from ages distant."[69]

Hoover Dam releasing water from the jet-flow gates in 1998

Excavation for the powerhouse was carried out simultaneously with the excavation for the dam foundation and abutments. A U-shaped structure located at the downstream toe of the dam, its excavation was completed in late 1933 with the first concrete placed in November 1933. Filling of Lake Mead began February 1, 1935, even before the last of the concrete was poured that May.[87] The powerhouse was one of the projects uncompleted at the time of the formal dedication on September 30, 1935—a crew of 500 men remained to finish it and other structures.[88] To make the powerhouse roof bombproof, it was constructed of layers of concrete, rock, and steel with a total thickness of about 3.5 feet (1.1 m), topped with layers of sand and tar.[89]

In the latter half of 1936, water levels in Lake Mead were high enough to permit power generation, and the first three Allis Chalmers built Francis turbine-generators, all on the Nevada side, began operating. In March 1937, one more Nevada generator went online and the first Arizona generator by August. By September 1939, four more generators were operating, and the dam's power plant became the largest hydroelectricity facility in the world. The final generator was not placed in service until 1961, bringing the maximum generating capacity to 1,345 megawatts at the time.[87][90] Original plans called for 16 large generators, eight on each side of the river, but two smaller generators were installed instead of one large one on the Arizona side for a total of 17. The smaller generators were used to serve smaller communities at a time when the output of each generator was dedicated to a single municipality, before the dam's total power output was placed on the grid and made arbitrarily distributable.[2] The present contracts for the sale of electricity expire in 2017.[91]

Before water from Lake Mead reaches the turbines, it enters the intake towers and then four gradually narrowing penstocks which funnel the water down towards the powerhouse. The intakes provide a maximum hydraulic head (water pressure) of 590 ft (180 m) as the water reaches a speed of about 85 mph (140 km/h). The entire flow of the Colorado River passes through the turbines. The spillways and outlet works (jet-flow gates) are rarely used.[2] The jet-flow gates, located in concrete structures 180 feet (55 m) above the river, and also at the outlets of the inner diversion tunnels at river level, may be used to divert water around the dam in emergency or flood conditions, but have never done so, and in practice are only used to drain water from the penstocks for maintenance.[92] Following an uprating project from 1986 to 1993, the total gross power rating for the plant, including two 2.4 megawatt Pelton turbine-generators that power Hoover Dam's own operations is a maximum capacity of 2080 megawatts.[2] The annual generation of Hoover Dam varies. The maximum net generation was 10.348 TWh in 1984, and the minimum since 1940 was 2.648 TWh in 1956.[2] The average power generated was 4.2 TWh/year for 1947–2008.[2] In 2015, the dam generated 3.6 TWh.[93]

The amount of electricity generated by Hoover Dam has been decreasing along with the falling water level in Lake Mead due to the prolonged drought in the 2010s and high demand for the Colorado River's water. Lake Mead fell to a new record low elevation of 1,071.61 feet (326.63 m) on July 1, 2016 before beginning to rebound slowly.[94] Under its original design, the dam will no longer be able to generate power once the water level falls below 1,050 feet (320 m), which could occur as early as 2017. To lower the minimum power pool elevation from 1,050 to 950 feet (320 to 290 m), five wide-head turbines, designed to work efficiently with less flow, are being installed and will be fully online by 2017.[95] Due to the low water levels, by 2014 it was providing power only during periods of peak demand.[96]

Control of water was the primary concern in the building of the dam. Power generation has allowed the dam project to be self-sustaining: proceeds from the sale of power repaid the 50-year construction loan, and those revenues also finance the multimillion-dollar yearly maintenance budget. Power is generated in step with and only with the release of water in response to downstream water demands.[91]

Lake Mead and downstream releases from the dam also provide water for both municipal and irrigation uses. Water released from the Hoover Dam eventually reaches several canals. The Colorado River Aqueduct and Central Arizona Project branch off Lake Havasu while the All-American Canal is supplied by the Imperial Dam. In total, water from the Lake Mead serves 18 million people in Arizona, Nevada and California and supplies the irrigation of over 1,000,000 acres (400,000 ha) of land.[91][97]

Electricity from the dam's powerhouse was originally sold pursuant to a fifty-year contract, authorized by Congress in 1934, which ran from 1937 to 1987. In 1984, Congress passed a new statute which set power allocations from the dam from 1987 to 2017.[98] The powerhouse was run under the original authorization by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and Southern California Edison; in 1987, the Bureau of Reclamation assumed control.[99] In 2011, Congress enacted legislation extending the current contracts until 2067, after setting aside 5% of Hoover Dam's power for sale to Native American tribes, electric cooperatives, and other entities. The new arrangement will begin on October 1, 2017.[98] The Bureau of Reclamation reports that the energy generated under the contracts ending in 2017 is allocated as follows:[2]

Water enters the Arizona spillway (left) during the 1983 floods. Lake Mead water level was 1,225.6 ft (373.6 m)

The dam is protected against over-topping by two spillways. The spillway entrances are located behind each dam abutment, running roughly parallel to the canyon walls. The spillway entrance arrangement forms a classic side-flow weir with each spillway containing four 100-foot-long (30 m) and 16-foot-wide (4.9 m) steel-drum gates. Each gate weighs 5,000,000 pounds (2,300,000 kg) and can be operated manually or automatically. Gates are raised and lowered depending on water levels in the reservoir and flood conditions. The gates could not entirely prevent water from entering the spillways but could maintain an extra 16 ft (4.9 m) of lake level.[100] Water flowing over the spillways falls dramatically into 600-foot-long (180 m), 50-foot-wide (15 m) spillway tunnels before connecting to the outer diversion tunnels, and reentering the main river channel below the dam. This complex spillway entrance arrangement combined with the approximate 700-foot (210 m) elevation drop from the top of the reservoir to the river below was a difficult engineering problem and posed numerous design challenges. Each spillway's capacity of 200,000 cu ft/s (5,700 m3/s) was empirically verified in post-construction tests in 1941.[100]

The large spillway tunnels have only been used twice, for testing in 1941 and because of flooding in 1983. During both times, when inspecting the tunnels after the spillways were used, engineers found major damage to the concrete linings and underlying rock.[101] The 1941 damage was attributed to a slight misalignment of the tunnel invert (or base), which caused cavitation, a phenomenon in fast-flowing liquids in which vapor bubbles collapse with explosive force. In response to this finding, the tunnels were patched with special heavy-duty concrete and the surface of the concrete was polished mirror-smooth.[102] The spillways were modified in 1947 by adding flip buckets, which both slow the water and decrease the spillway's effective capacity, in an attempt to eliminate conditions thought to have contributed to the 1941 damage. The 1983 damage, also due to cavitation, led to the installation of aerators in the spillways.[101] Tests at Grand Coulee Dam showed that the technique worked, in principle.[102]

The bypass in front of the dam

There are two lanes for automobile traffic across the top of the dam, which formerly served as the Colorado River crossing for U.S. Route 93.[103] In the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, authorities expressed security concerns and the Hoover Dam Bypass project was expedited. Pending the completion of the bypass, restricted traffic was permitted over Hoover Dam. Some types of vehicles were inspected prior to crossing the dam while semi-trailer trucks, buses carrying luggage, and enclosed-box trucks over 40 ft (12 m) long were not allowed on the dam at all, and were diverted to U.S. Route 95 or Nevada State Routes 163/68.[104] The four-lane Hoover Dam Bypass opened on October 19, 2010.[105] It includes a composite steel and concrete arch bridge, the Mike O'Callaghan–Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge, 1,500 ft (460 m) downstream from the dam. With the opening of the bypass, through traffic is no longer allowed across Hoover Dam; dam visitors are allowed to use the existing roadway to approach from the Nevada side and cross to parking lots and other facilities on the Arizona side.[106]

Hoover Dam opened for tours in 1937 after its completion, but following Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, it was closed to the public when the United States entered World War II, during which only authorized traffic, in convoys, was permitted. After the war, it reopened September 2, 1945, and by 1953, annual attendance had risen to 448,081. The dam closed on November 25, 1963 and March 31, 1969, days of mourning in remembrance of Presidents Kennedy and Eisenhower. In 1995, a new visitors' center was built, and the following year, visits exceeded one million for the first time. The dam closed again to the public on September 11, 2001; modified tours were resumed in December and a new "Discovery Tour" was added the following year.[99] Today, nearly a million people per year take the tours of the dam offered by the Bureau of Reclamation.[107] Increased security concerns by the government have led to most of the interior structure being inaccessible to tourists. As a result, few of True's decorations can now be seen by visitors.[108]

View upstream from Hoover Dam, Sept. 2009. Water elevation on this date was 1093.77 ft.

The changes in water flow and use caused by Hoover Dam's construction and operation have had a large impact on the Colorado River Delta.[109] The construction of the dam has been implicated in causing the decline of this estuarine ecosystem.[109] For six years after the construction of the dam, while Lake Mead filled, virtually no water reached the mouth of the river.[110] The delta's estuary, which once had a freshwater-saltwater mixing zone stretching 40 miles (64 km) south of the river's mouth, was turned into an inverse estuary where the level of salinity was higher close to the river's mouth.[111]

The Colorado River had experienced natural flooding before the construction of the Hoover Dam. The dam eliminated the natural flooding, which threatened many species adapted to the flooding, including both plants and animals.[112] The construction of the dam devastated the populations of native fish in the river downstream from the dam.[113] Four species of fish native to the Colorado River, the Bonytail chub, Colorado pikeminnow, Humpback chub, and Razorback sucker, are listed as endangered.[114][115]

Los Angeles Times political cartoon commenting on the attempts of Ickes to keep 'Hoover' off of the dam.

During the years of lobbying leading up to the passage of legislation authorizing the dam in 1928, the press generally referred to the dam as "Boulder Dam" or as "Boulder Canyon Dam", even though the proposed site had shifted to Black Canyon.[15] The Boulder Canyon Project Act of 1928 (BCPA) never mentioned a proposed name or title for the dam. The BCPA merely allows the government to "construct, operate, and maintain a dam and incidental works in the main stream of the Colorado River at Black Canyon or Boulder Canyon".[116]

When Secretary Wilbur spoke at the ceremony starting the building of the railway between Las Vegas and the dam site on September 17, 1930, he named the dam "Hoover Dam", citing a tradition of naming dams after Presidents, though none had been so honored during their terms of office. Wilbur justified his choice on the ground that Hoover was "the great engineer whose vision and persistence ... has done so much to make [the dam] possible".[117] One writer complained in response that "the Great Engineer had quickly drained, ditched, and dammed the country."[117]

After Hoover's election defeat in 1932 and the accession of the Roosevelt administration, Secretary Ickes ordered on May 13, 1933, that the dam be referred to as "Boulder Dam". Ickes stated that Wilbur had been imprudent in naming the dam after a sitting president, that Congress had never ratified his choice, and that it had long been referred to as Boulder Dam.[117] Unknown to the general public, Attorney General Homer Cummings informed Ickes that Congress had indeed used the name "Hoover Dam" in five different bills appropriating money for construction of the dam.[118] The official status this conferred to the name "Hoover Dam" had been noted on the floor of the House of Representatives by Congressman Edward T. Taylor of Colorado on December 12, 1930,[119] but was likewise ignored by Ickes.

When Ickes spoke at the dedication ceremony on September 30, 1935, he was determined, as he recorded in his diary, "to try to nail down for good and all the name Boulder Dam."[67] At one point in the speech, he spoke the words "Boulder Dam" five times within thirty seconds.[120] Further, he suggested that if the dam were to be named after any one person, it should be for California Senator Hiram Johnson, a lead sponsor of the authorizing legislation.[67] Roosevelt also referred to the dam as Boulder Dam,[88] and the Republican-leaning Los Angeles Times, which at the time of Ickes' name change had run an editorial cartoon showing Ickes ineffectively chipping away at an enormous sign "HOOVER DAM," reran it showing Roosevelt reinforcing Ickes, but having no greater success.[121]

In the following years, the name "Boulder Dam" failed to fully take hold, with many Americans using both names interchangeably and mapmakers divided as to which name should be printed. Memories of the Great Depression faded, and Hoover to some extent rehabilitated himself through good works during and after World War II. In 1947, a bill passed both Houses of Congress unanimously restoring the name "Hoover Dam." Ickes, who was by then a private citizen, opposed the change, stating, "I didn't know Hoover was that small a man to take credit for something he had nothing to do with."[122]

Hoover Dam was recognized as a National Civil Engineering Landmark in 1984.[123] It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1981, and was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1985, cited for its engineering innovations.[4]

Hoover Dam 2011 panoramic view from the Arizona side showing the penstock towers, the Nevada-side spillway entrance and the Mike O'Callaghan – Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge, also known as the Hoover Dam Bypass

Other sources

TEXAS

Cross Mountain decorative concrete contractors

How to Find a Good Patio Contractor

Have you decided you want a flagstone, limestone or concrete patio for your TEXAS home. Wondering how to get it done and who you should use? Well, I’m going to tell you how. I’m going to give you a step by step process stating the 3 red flags that signal a bad or uneducated [tag] contractor. These 3 things will ensure you get it done the right way, by the right biggest concrete companies contractor in TEXAS .

Steps To Finding The Right Concrete Contractor in TEXAS

First step, first things first. Every Stone Installation Needs A Concrete Footing which might also be called a concrete foundation . This is not opinion but fact. If you want it done right and want it to withstand the test of time, this is the way it’s done, no exceptions. A red flag should go up when any contractor is offering bypassing a concrete foundation as a cost saving option. Unfortunately 85% of the biggest concrete companies contractors out there will tell you they can lay the stone right on top of compacted granite or base material. This type of contractor is exactly who you want to avoid. While what they are recommending to you gives the appearance of a patio, it won’t withstand the climate, erosion and soil movement beneath the patio in TEXAS .

BEWARE OF CONCRETE CONTRACTOR SCAMS

local ready mix concrete

You might get a few crackless years at best, until it begins to fall apart. This method is the most recommended scam or shortcut of trying to lower pricing and still get the job. Notice the price came down because the concrete footing was removed from the job cost. This option of ” no concrete necessary” is most often offered to those with strict financial limitations. The contractors offering this solution don’t care about your patio or home, they just want your money.With no concrete foundation you get a type of patio, but it’s really just a veneer laid on the ground.

How much concrete do i need?

A concrete patio or sidewalk slab or footing should be a minimum of 4 inches thick. This is sometimes reduced to around 3 1/2 inches due to preexisting structural limitations for biggest concrete companies in TEXAS . If you encounter space limitations, you really do need a good masonry contractor to resolve the issues with other options. this leads us to our next step.

pouring concrete driveway

The 2nd step is hire a knowledgeable masonry contractor in TEXAS . Do a little research before you start getting pricing. Most good masonry contractors will be able to talk concrete chemistry and technology with you. Yes, I said technology. In the last 10 years there have been some really cool advances in concrete additives and mixes. These advances have provided solutions for the problems and limitations of old. A true patio or masonry professional will be able to talk shop with you, it’s his livelihood. A contractor who can’t do this or doesn’t seem comfortable is more than likely a novice at best. This should be the other red flag that goes up. Basically, Concrete slabs and mortar are like a cake mix. Correctly mixing the ingredients and correctly letting the slab or masonry product cure, are the factors that determine a good solid installation. Again, Talk with your contractor and Make sure he’s knowledgeable about the chemistry, additives and curing process of concrete & masonry. If he is this will ensure the likelihood of a great patio. 3rd step and last but definitely not least, Check references, check reviews and ask to see work they’ve done. Really check this stuff out and try to look at at least 1 job they have done. Ask point blank if the previous client is related to the contractor. Any resistance or confusion in this process would be red flag number

concrete slab foundation

3.So, in order from 1 to 3. All masonry installations need a concrete footing. Make sure your patio contractor is knowledgeable about masonry chemistry, additives and enhancing solutions. Check references, reviews and stay away from the dirt cheap deals of a lifetime from any concrete contractor in TEXAS .If you get even 1 red flag, get another contractor. There are enough guys out there that do know what they’re doing.

Turnkey

commercial concrete contractors

Concrete surfaces and structures don't last forever, so if you require a concrete cutter, we may think it is best to hire skilled and properly qualified operator to create cracks and to facilitate the demolition. Drilling down and cutting down are always followed with a huge mess and dust so it is always better to find local, professional concrete cutting contractor. They can do a much cleaner and more efficient job. On the face of it, you need to visualise someone with proper equipment and skills together with maximum resources. Hiring concrete cutters with a proven track record and plenty of experience is the first criteria when making such a huge decision.1. You need someone with Good ReputationThe cutting service provider must be capable to build a positive reputation. They must possess knowledge and experience, so you can have confidence even for the most difficult and delicate projects. There are always plenty of contractors to choosing from, but their reputation is the main consideration you need to go for. Furthermore the final price, arranged deadlines and personal skills, can be the deciding factors after the professional competence. Inspecting out the reputation of a local concrete cutter is quite easy, with a few different avenues to take. Visit their website - Choose a cutter who owns a quality website. You can see that this concrete cutting company is a part of Concrete Sawing and Drilling Association of Australia (CSDAA). There are many ways you can check the competence of the contractor - you can seek for recommendations. The provider you choose can give you documentation and recommendations from previous projects and the work they have done to someone else.2. You need a provider who is AffordableThere is a tendency to expect from local specialists - whether they are concrete cutters or other tradesperson - because of the local market conditions you can ask for a lower quote. However, local companies can give you a more rational quote than international or regional companies with bigger projects, which means they will ask for more resources for the same project. This doesn`t mean that local operators don`t have competence, skills or equipment; they are just more affordable to work with. 3. Equipment and Technology By definition, the local concrete provider you will choose must have the complete facilities to maintain every single project successfully. Of course, if the provided equipment is good enough, it can repair the damage effortlessly and the demand of labour is eased considerably.4. Accredited by Progressive AssociationChoose a local concrete company that is accredited as a member by a national or international association or federation. Somehow, you will have a further guarantee that the contractor adheres to the working standards, respecting all safety regulations during the cutting process.

The Use of Formwork in Construction

residential concrete construction

Precast concrete products have evolved over the years and now their use is widespread in many industries. The endless ability to innovate with concrete means that as new technologies have been developed the scope for different products has increased dramatically.Construction is one of the main and most obvious uses for concrete. As the industry has developed the number of products and their applicability has had dramatic effects in terms of reducing and simplifying building projects. Products include retaining walls, foundations, flooring (hollowcore, block and beam), beams, lintels, bridges, cladding, complete precast structures... the list could go on. As engineers and designers get their heads around the possibilities, the number of products and applications increases. Agriculture offers a variety of opportunities for utilising concrete products. Silage clamps, slurry stores, slurry channels, grain stores, retaining walls, suspended flooring systems, feed and water troughs. Due to concrete's strength and ability to withstand extreme conditions it is ideal for this type of use.Traffic and roads provide another environment where concrete products play a major part. Whether it be concrete barriers, or retaining walls at the side of roads; concrete products are widely used on our roads.Utilites, water and waste products offer another range of applications. Manholes, water tanks, culverts, septic tanks and many more products which play a major part in this area of business. Concrete products are everywhere around us and provide countless benefits and opportunities. As new technology is introduced the scope for further products increases and hopefully so will the benefits we derive from them. The above articles lists some of the main uses for these products, but by no stretch of the imagination is this an exhaustive list!

TEXAS

Tierra Grande biggest concrete companies

How to Find a Good Patio Contractor

Have you decided you want a flagstone, limestone or concrete patio for your TEXAS home. Wondering how to get it done and who you should use? Well, I’m going to tell you how. I’m going to give you a step by step process stating the 3 red flags that signal a bad or uneducated [tag] contractor. These 3 things will ensure you get it done the right way, by the right concrete contractors delaware contractor in TEXAS .

Steps To Finding The Right Concrete Contractor in TEXAS

First step, first things first. Every Stone Installation Needs A Concrete Footing which might also be called a concrete foundation . This is not opinion but fact. If you want it done right and want it to withstand the test of time, this is the way it’s done, no exceptions. A red flag should go up when any contractor is offering bypassing a concrete foundation as a cost saving option. Unfortunately 85% of the concrete contractors delaware contractors out there will tell you they can lay the stone right on top of compacted granite or base material. This type of contractor is exactly who you want to avoid. While what they are recommending to you gives the appearance of a patio, it won’t withstand the climate, erosion and soil movement beneath the patio in TEXAS .

BEWARE OF CONCRETE CONTRACTOR SCAMS

demolition of concrete

You might get a few crackless years at best, until it begins to fall apart. This method is the most recommended scam or shortcut of trying to lower pricing and still get the job. Notice the price came down because the concrete footing was removed from the job cost. This option of ” no concrete necessary” is most often offered to those with strict financial limitations. The contractors offering this solution don’t care about your patio or home, they just want your money.With no concrete foundation you get a type of patio, but it’s really just a veneer laid on the ground.

How much concrete do i need?

A concrete patio or sidewalk slab or footing should be a minimum of 4 inches thick. This is sometimes reduced to around 3 1/2 inches due to preexisting structural limitations for concrete contractors delaware in TEXAS . If you encounter space limitations, you really do need a good masonry contractor to resolve the issues with other options. this leads us to our next step.

poured concrete wall construction

The 2nd step is hire a knowledgeable masonry contractor in TEXAS . Do a little research before you start getting pricing. Most good masonry contractors will be able to talk concrete chemistry and technology with you. Yes, I said technology. In the last 10 years there have been some really cool advances in concrete additives and mixes. These advances have provided solutions for the problems and limitations of old. A true patio or masonry professional will be able to talk shop with you, it’s his livelihood. A contractor who can’t do this or doesn’t seem comfortable is more than likely a novice at best. This should be the other red flag that goes up. Basically, Concrete slabs and mortar are like a cake mix. Correctly mixing the ingredients and correctly letting the slab or masonry product cure, are the factors that determine a good solid installation. Again, Talk with your contractor and Make sure he’s knowledgeable about the chemistry, additives and curing process of concrete & masonry. If he is this will ensure the likelihood of a great patio. 3rd step and last but definitely not least, Check references, check reviews and ask to see work they’ve done. Really check this stuff out and try to look at at least 1 job they have done. Ask point blank if the previous client is related to the contractor. Any resistance or confusion in this process would be red flag number

concrete resurfacing contractors

3.So, in order from 1 to 3. All masonry installations need a concrete footing. Make sure your patio contractor is knowledgeable about masonry chemistry, additives and enhancing solutions. Check references, reviews and stay away from the dirt cheap deals of a lifetime from any concrete contractor in TEXAS .If you get even 1 red flag, get another contractor. There are enough guys out there that do know what they’re doing.

Concrete Products

decorative concrete business

A concrete contractor is a specifically trained and experienced individual or team that is able to manage concrete in its various stages from an unmixed combination to the hard finished product that is produced. A qualified Concrete Contractor can design intricate plans with expert industry knowledge and experience, allowing homeowners to create their own perfect custom products for renovations in their own homes today.

The contractor will oversee delivery and ensure the concrete is poured correctly. The product will then need to be worked with by an expert to produce a leveled and smooth surface that will be able to cure properly. Ensuring this process is completed accurately is one of the key procedures that need to be handled carefully and diligently by the professional involved.

All great contractors can custom design features for their clients using their knowledge, skill and different techniques to ensure the best possible results with excellent customer satisfaction. Uniquely designed plans will be functional and structurally sound with patterns or color added to suit a customer's project idea.

Delivering the best options, quality and pricing to suit everyone's needs; a professionally trained Concrete Contractor will be able to provide the highest quality completed projects with top structural standards and ongoing customer support during and after the work is finished. A concrete contractor will ensure the expectations of a client are met at all times throughout the process of any construction with the most effective, reliable and reputable service available in the market today.

U.S. Concrete, Inc

concrete firms

Concrete formwork is the use of support structures and moulds to create structures out of concrete which is poured into the moulds.

There are many different types of formwork used in construction, usually differing according to what the building requirements and challenges are. Formwork is used by creating moulds out of wood, steel, aluminium or prefabricated forms into which the concrete is poured. This is then allowed to harden and set after which it is stripped, or in the case of stay-in-place formwork it is left as part of the structure.

Formwork allows contractors to cast and construct the main parts of a building which are required to be strong and support the structure such as floors and walls, as well as smaller parts of a building such as stairs relatively quickly.

Types of Formwork
There are many different types of concrete formwork used in construction. Traditional timber formwork uses timber and plywood to form the moulds for pouring. This method is cheaper than other methods, yet not as effective because wood is not as strong as metal or steel. However, on complicated sections of buildings which need great attention to detail, timber formwork is still widely used.

Concrete can crack, which was problematic for constructions throughout history as they ran the risk of collapse. Today reinforced concrete is used which is a much stronger substance and rarely cracks. When concrete is reinforced, it is filled with metal rods and reinforcing bars with other materials such as glass and plastic fibre.

Concrete formwork is widely used in present day construction. With the many different types of formwork available, any building project is more easily achievable because different methods can be used to achieve the desired result. When reinforced, concrete is a virtually indestructible material, perfect for major construction work, as well as small, detailed and complex structures.

TEXAS

New Territory concrete supply inc

How to Find a Good Patio Contractor

Have you decided you want a flagstone, limestone or concrete patio for your TEXAS home. Wondering how to get it done and who you should use? Well, I’m going to tell you how. I’m going to give you a step by step process stating the 3 red flags that signal a bad or uneducated [tag] contractor. These 3 things will ensure you get it done the right way, by the right concrete foundation companies contractor in TEXAS .

Steps To Finding The Right Concrete Contractor in TEXAS

First step, first things first. Every Stone Installation Needs A Concrete Footing which might also be called a concrete foundation . This is not opinion but fact. If you want it done right and want it to withstand the test of time, this is the way it’s done, no exceptions. A red flag should go up when any contractor is offering bypassing a concrete foundation as a cost saving option. Unfortunately 85% of the concrete foundation companies contractors out there will tell you they can lay the stone right on top of compacted granite or base material. This type of contractor is exactly who you want to avoid. While what they are recommending to you gives the appearance of a patio, it won’t withstand the climate, erosion and soil movement beneath the patio in TEXAS .

BEWARE OF CONCRETE CONTRACTOR SCAMS

decorative concrete business

You might get a few crackless years at best, until it begins to fall apart. This method is the most recommended scam or shortcut of trying to lower pricing and still get the job. Notice the price came down because the concrete footing was removed from the job cost. This option of ” no concrete necessary” is most often offered to those with strict financial limitations. The contractors offering this solution don’t care about your patio or home, they just want your money.With no concrete foundation you get a type of patio, but it’s really just a veneer laid on the ground.

How much concrete do i need?

A concrete patio or sidewalk slab or footing should be a minimum of 4 inches thick. This is sometimes reduced to around 3 1/2 inches due to preexisting structural limitations for concrete foundation companies in TEXAS . If you encounter space limitations, you really do need a good masonry contractor to resolve the issues with other options. this leads us to our next step.

pouring concrete driveway

The 2nd step is hire a knowledgeable masonry contractor in TEXAS . Do a little research before you start getting pricing. Most good masonry contractors will be able to talk concrete chemistry and technology with you. Yes, I said technology. In the last 10 years there have been some really cool advances in concrete additives and mixes. These advances have provided solutions for the problems and limitations of old. A true patio or masonry professional will be able to talk shop with you, it’s his livelihood. A contractor who can’t do this or doesn’t seem comfortable is more than likely a novice at best. This should be the other red flag that goes up. Basically, Concrete slabs and mortar are like a cake mix. Correctly mixing the ingredients and correctly letting the slab or masonry product cure, are the factors that determine a good solid installation. Again, Talk with your contractor and Make sure he’s knowledgeable about the chemistry, additives and curing process of concrete & masonry. If he is this will ensure the likelihood of a great patio. 3rd step and last but definitely not least, Check references, check reviews and ask to see work they’ve done. Really check this stuff out and try to look at at least 1 job they have done. Ask point blank if the previous client is related to the contractor. Any resistance or confusion in this process would be red flag number

concrete resurfacing contractors

3.So, in order from 1 to 3. All masonry installations need a concrete footing. Make sure your patio contractor is knowledgeable about masonry chemistry, additives and enhancing solutions. Check references, reviews and stay away from the dirt cheap deals of a lifetime from any concrete contractor in TEXAS .If you get even 1 red flag, get another contractor. There are enough guys out there that do know what they’re doing.

List of construction trades

decorative concrete business

Precast concrete products have evolved over the years and now their use is widespread in many industries. The endless ability to innovate with concrete means that as new technologies have been developed the scope for different products has increased dramatically.Construction is one of the main and most obvious uses for concrete. As the industry has developed the number of products and their applicability has had dramatic effects in terms of reducing and simplifying building projects. Products include retaining walls, foundations, flooring (hollowcore, block and beam), beams, lintels, bridges, cladding, complete precast structures... the list could go on. As engineers and designers get their heads around the possibilities, the number of products and applications increases. Agriculture offers a variety of opportunities for utilising concrete products. Silage clamps, slurry stores, slurry channels, grain stores, retaining walls, suspended flooring systems, feed and water troughs. Due to concrete's strength and ability to withstand extreme conditions it is ideal for this type of use.Traffic and roads provide another environment where concrete products play a major part. Whether it be concrete barriers, or retaining walls at the side of roads; concrete products are widely used on our roads.Utilites, water and waste products offer another range of applications. Manholes, water tanks, culverts, septic tanks and many more products which play a major part in this area of business. Concrete products are everywhere around us and provide countless benefits and opportunities. As new technology is introduced the scope for further products increases and hopefully so will the benefits we derive from them. The above articles lists some of the main uses for these products, but by no stretch of the imagination is this an exhaustive list!

Concrete Products

residential concrete construction

The concept of precast construction (which also refers as "prefabricated construction") includes those buildings where the majority of structural components are standardized and produced in plants in a location away from the building, and then transported to the site for assembly. These components are manufactured by industrial methods based on mass production in order to build a large number of buildings in a short time at low cost.The main features of this construction process are as follows: The division and specialization of the human workforce The flawless use of tools and other equipments, usually automated, in the production of standard, interchangeable parts and productsSince 2005, the demand for new commercial and residential buildings has been on the top than the other types of construction. Practically, precast construction is always more economical when compared to conventional multifamily residential, commercial, industrial or institutional construction anywhere in world.As per the load-bearing structural, precast construction can be categorize into the following categories: Large-panel systems Frame systems Slab-column systems with walls Mixed systemsList of Structural Precast Detailing Services: Precast Concrete Detailing Precast Wall Panels Detailing Precast Concrete Cladding Panels Detailing Precast Concrete Tilt-up Panels Detailing Precast Shop Drawings Precast Concrete Stairs Detailing Precast Erection Drawings Precast Concrete Column Detailing Precast Concrete Beam Detailing Precast Concrete Slab Detailing Post Tension Detailing Double Tee Detailing Non load bearing & Load bearing Column Cover and Cornices Hollow Core Slab Detailing Services Column Cap Plate Detailing Flat Slab Detailing Services As far as the concept of precast products is concerned, many states across the United States require a precast plant to be certified by either the Architectural Precast Association (APA), National Precast Concrete Association or Precast Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI) for a precast producer to supply their product to a construction site sponsored by State and Federal DOTs.There are some numerous products which are utilizing precast/ prestressed concrete and majority of precast products can fall under one or more of the following categories: Agricultural Products Building and Site Amenities Retaining Walls Transportation and Traffic Related Products Utility Structures Water and Wastewater Products Cemetery Products Prestressed/Structural Products Double Wall Precast - Concrete Sandwich PanelsFurthermore, Tilt-up construction is also plays an important part of Precast Construction process. Of course, a question comes into your mind that, so what is the difference between tilt-up and other types of construction?The answer is, in traditional forms of wall construction, the walls can be built with CMU blocks or blocks faced with brick. A tilt-up building's walls are created horizontally in large slabs of concrete called panels. The panels are then lifted, or tilted up, into position around the building's slab. This means the tilt-up structure's exterior wall is virtually finished when it is tilted into place.Tilt-up construction provides numerous advantages over steel buildings either it is residential, commercial, institutional or other types of industrial building construction projects. Generally speaking, a one- to two-story structure larger than 50,000 square feet with less than 50% wall opening space is an excellent example for tilt-up concrete construction. Benefits of Tilt-up Construction:• Savings Construction Costs: by using this construction method, raw material costs can be reduced and of course it will also reduce the overall construction cost as well. In tilt-up construction method, the workers are typically lesser than the workers used in traditional construction. This way contractor can reduce labor costs. Because of the economies of scale, the larger the footprints for the building, the more these savings improve the project's total cost.• Fast Construction Schedule: Tilt-up construction offers several opportunities to "compress" the schedule and deliver the building very quickly. To erecting the walls in tilt-up construction is a faster process than building walls using traditional construction techniques. The trades can begin work earlier in the process on a tilt-up project, which allows greater overlapping of project phases. Because the building is made of ready-mix concrete from local sources, the chances of delay project is less than the traditional construction method.• Safety: Tilt-up concrete is a proven, safe method of construction.• Flexibility: Tilt-up concrete buildings are not prefabricated. Each one is custom-designed for the client's needs and preferences.

TEXAS

Southside Place concrete supply inc

How to Find a Good Patio Contractor

Have you decided you want a flagstone, limestone or concrete patio for your TEXAS home. Wondering how to get it done and who you should use? Well, I’m going to tell you how. I’m going to give you a step by step process stating the 3 red flags that signal a bad or uneducated [tag] contractor. These 3 things will ensure you get it done the right way, by the right licensed concrete contractors contractor in TEXAS .

Steps To Finding The Right Concrete Contractor in TEXAS

First step, first things first. Every Stone Installation Needs A Concrete Footing which might also be called a concrete foundation . This is not opinion but fact. If you want it done right and want it to withstand the test of time, this is the way it’s done, no exceptions. A red flag should go up when any contractor is offering bypassing a concrete foundation as a cost saving option. Unfortunately 85% of the licensed concrete contractors contractors out there will tell you they can lay the stone right on top of compacted granite or base material. This type of contractor is exactly who you want to avoid. While what they are recommending to you gives the appearance of a patio, it won’t withstand the climate, erosion and soil movement beneath the patio in TEXAS .

BEWARE OF CONCRETE CONTRACTOR SCAMS

concrete resurfacing contractors

You might get a few crackless years at best, until it begins to fall apart. This method is the most recommended scam or shortcut of trying to lower pricing and still get the job. Notice the price came down because the concrete footing was removed from the job cost. This option of ” no concrete necessary” is most often offered to those with strict financial limitations. The contractors offering this solution don’t care about your patio or home, they just want your money.With no concrete foundation you get a type of patio, but it’s really just a veneer laid on the ground.

How much concrete do i need?

A concrete patio or sidewalk slab or footing should be a minimum of 4 inches thick. This is sometimes reduced to around 3 1/2 inches due to preexisting structural limitations for licensed concrete contractors in TEXAS . If you encounter space limitations, you really do need a good masonry contractor to resolve the issues with other options. this leads us to our next step.

concrete contractors

The 2nd step is hire a knowledgeable masonry contractor in TEXAS . Do a little research before you start getting pricing. Most good masonry contractors will be able to talk concrete chemistry and technology with you. Yes, I said technology. In the last 10 years there have been some really cool advances in concrete additives and mixes. These advances have provided solutions for the problems and limitations of old. A true patio or masonry professional will be able to talk shop with you, it’s his livelihood. A contractor who can’t do this or doesn’t seem comfortable is more than likely a novice at best. This should be the other red flag that goes up. Basically, Concrete slabs and mortar are like a cake mix. Correctly mixing the ingredients and correctly letting the slab or masonry product cure, are the factors that determine a good solid installation. Again, Talk with your contractor and Make sure he’s knowledgeable about the chemistry, additives and curing process of concrete & masonry. If he is this will ensure the likelihood of a great patio. 3rd step and last but definitely not least, Check references, check reviews and ask to see work they’ve done. Really check this stuff out and try to look at at least 1 job they have done. Ask point blank if the previous client is related to the contractor. Any resistance or confusion in this process would be red flag number

demolition of concrete

3.So, in order from 1 to 3. All masonry installations need a concrete footing. Make sure your patio contractor is knowledgeable about masonry chemistry, additives and enhancing solutions. Check references, reviews and stay away from the dirt cheap deals of a lifetime from any concrete contractor in TEXAS .If you get even 1 red flag, get another contractor. There are enough guys out there that do know what they’re doing.

U.S. Concrete, Inc

pouring concrete driveway

Many people use their garage to store anything that they can’t or would rather not have in their living space. With valuable space at a premium, people are often forced to keep their lawn mower, gardening implements, tools, sports materials, bicycles and seasonal items in their garage. If you have room in your garage for anything but your car, then it might be time to invest in quality garage storage solutions.

Step into your garage and what do you see? Maybe some unopened boxes from when you moved in a few years ago. You have no idea what’s inside them but you also don’t want to throw them away. You see your old golf clubs, musty and covered in cobwebs. You try to remember the last time you played golf but it escapes you. You move around some boxes to make space and you find the bikes your children have outgrown, and toys they no longer play with. You remember your youngest is going to uni in a couple of months. But where’s your car? Oh, right, it’s parked out in the street.

Quality storage can help give your garage some much-needed organisation. Some would say, “Garages are meant to be messy.” Anybody who has said that has never had the benefit of a tidy garage. Organising your garage can help reduce the clutter, make finding and storing things easier and more convenient, and most importantly, free up space. Getting the most out of your garage space is the goal, and to do so you must plan carefully what to store, how to store it, and where it should be placed. Here are a few tips and pointers for taking your garage back.

What to keep in your garage

Even if you’ve invested in expensive home security cameras and alarms, your garage is rarely as secure as the rest of your home. Garage doors and windows are most likely to be left unlocked or open. If you’re storing items of value in your garage or thinking of doing it, It is important that you take measures to secure the space to prevent unauthorised access and theft.

The conditions in the garage are also sure to be different from the rest of your home. Garages are seldom climate-controlled, and you will need to modify the room before storing items that are sensitive to temperature and humidity. However, garages are excellent spaces for storing non-perishable food so you better take advantage of bulk discounts at your supermarket.

Measuring the garage

When taking measurements for anything, be sure to measure twice and do it once more to be 100% certain. Getting the wrong measurements could cost you a lot of time, effort and money. Be sure to get the accurate width, length and height of the area where you want to add storage. Double-check if the walls are at an exact right angle.

When planning the layout, take into consideration the locations of plumbing and wiring as the storage solutions may impede access to these. You don’t want to tear down your cabinets just so the plumber can inspect a pipe that may or may not be leaky.

Lastly, when thinking about the space you need, volume almost always beats area. Storage with a small footprint but wide clearance is always better than one with a wide area but low clearance.

Storage cabinets

Storage cabinets are the most common storage solution for garages. Many people find them to be the best option, as they can be used to store practically anything. Storage cabinets typically fall under three categories: base cabinets, wall cabinets and utility storage.

If you want to maximise your storage without using floor space, then mounted wall cabinets are your option. If not set too high, mounted wall cabinets allow for immediate access to storage without taking up space on the floor. Wall mounted cabinets can be either horizontal (wide footprint, low clearance), or vertical (narrow footprint, high clearance).

For freestanding storage, you can always go for a utility storage cabinet. Perfect for small lawn care items, gardening supplies and other accessories, utility storage cabinets can comfortably fit long, narrow items, and can include partitions and interior shelving.

Base cabinets are similar to modular kitchen counters, and are a cheaper alternative to inbuilt cabinets. A standard base cabinet has two or three drawers, or a combination of drawers and shelves. They can also include features like key locks, countertops and rubber edges for protection.

Storage racks

If you own bicycles, sports equipment or gardening tools like spades and rakes, storage racks are a must-have for your garage. Storage racks allow easy access to commonly-used objects while keeping clutter and accidents to a minimum. It can be either wall-mounted or freestanding.

You can have a dedicated storage rack for your sports equipment, one for gardening and another one for general hardware. These racks can feature protective mesh, utility trays or side hooks.

Ceiling mounted racks are useful for seasonal or rarely used items. They utilize ceiling space instead of wall or floor space, so the positioning of lights in the garage should be taken into account. Ceiling mounted racks are only recommended if space is limited.

Conclusion

Clearing your garage and organising its contents and layout takes practice and planning. Check your garage needs and wants so you can optimise the space to its fullest extent. But adding in racks and cabinets is half the work— you have to strive to keep your garage clean and free of pests. Your garage may be better organised now, but it’s barely better than your old one if it’s infested with rats and cockroaches.

Concrete Foundations And Construction Companies For Erecting Buildings

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If you have a limited amount of budget and at the same time, you also want to renovate and remodel your home, then you can try out these cheap ideas of remodeling your home. It is natural to upgrade your house if you have been living in it for years and years. Though upgrading comes out to be quite expensive, you can go for the cheaper ideas. Avoid having new kitchen cabinets and countertops, new bath vanities, expensive hardwood floors, all of them will cost you thousands of dollars. Try out these cheap ways that can help you to remodel your home of your set budget line:

Tips for Home renovations Queens

Make use of Peel-and-Stick Contact kind of Paper along with Stainless Steel Finishing on your Appliances

Application of peel and stick contact paper along with the finishing of stainless steel, no one will ever tell the real difference that whether you have got the new items or renovated the older one. This real deal will only and just cost you a fraction of a price.
Do Change your handles, doorknobs as well as hinges

These are one of the inexpensive and cheapest finishing touches. Give a finishing touch to your handles, doorknobs, hinges. This kind of upgrading will not put up a huge difference in your budget. Installation of these handles, doorknobs are also quick and easy to do.

Changing the theme of your lampshades

It is one of the small details that can bring a significant change in the look of your home. Changing the theme of your lampshades will make your home to look more cohesive one.

Installation of new curtains

Your home can be upgraded in a cheaper way with the installation of new curtains and new blinds on your windows. Avoid getting one-inch vinyl blinds; they are expensive. Instead, you can have Two-inch wood blinds. These blinds can give the more aesthetic touch to your home. These woods blinds are not easily to destroy as well.

Rearranging your furniture

Rearrangement of your furniture does not mean that you have to buy new pieces and items of furniture. You only have to reorganize your furniture pieces. Create new shapes of your living space and reorganize the flow of these items.

Changing your wallpaper/ repainting your walls

You should repaint your walls or you can change their wallpaper, both options are feasible. A surprising change in the look of your home the minute you will paint or change wallpaper of them. You can have a matte finish as well if you already had a glossy finishing before.

Hanging of more mirrors

By hanging more mirrors in your home, it is one of the frugal alternatives to renovating your home. These mirrors will let your home to shine and glow more. It is better to hang two mirrors and that too in the same room, place them on the opposite walls and you will see that your room will look bigger in size.

Buying a bed set for your room/ buying new set of pillows covers

What you can do, start sewing out old pieces of fabric to give them a pillow cover look, you can start knitting a blanket as well. If you cannot find some old pieces of fabric, then hunt into yard sales. There you will find cheaper fabric for your bed sets and pillow covers.

Placing plants in outdoor and indoor areas of your home

Pot your plants in some cheap plastic jars and containers and place them in outdoor and indoor areas of your home. If you have some extra budget then instead of buying plastic jars, you can even get ceramic pots for your plants.
So are you ready to renovate your home? More tips for Home renovations Queens are coming up!

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